Using the Glossaries

You can access the glossaries available for the project by clicking the "+" button at the top left of the main catalog or of any text edition. There you will see glossaries for the various languages and dialects that are used in the Amarna letters as well as for the proper nouns that appear in the texts. The main language glossary is "MB Peripheral," our umbrella term for the various dialects of Akkadian written in Syria and the Levant. There are also smaller language glossaries for Canaanite, Egyptian, Hurrian, and even one word of Ugaritic. Note that the Egyptian glossary only includes words that appear in the letter's cuneiform text; the dockets written in Hieratic Egyptian will be incorporated in a future update. Future updates will also add Middle Babylonian and Middle Assyrian glossaries for those Great Powers letters sent from Babylonia and Assyria. The MB Peripheral glossary follows Oracc protocol for the linguistic annotation of Akkadian so that, for instance, words are listed with initial /w/ but without mimation and statives are tagged as adjectives (click here [] to see the full protocol). However, a particular dialect of "Canaano-Akkadian" used in many of the Amarna letters has required some adjustments. Most notably, we have tried to represent the use of Akkadian statives as suffix-conjugation perfect tense verbs by annotating these forms with the extended part-of-speech tag "verb."

Proper nouns can be explored all together ("Proper Nouns") or as subsets (e.g., "People," "Places," "Divine Names). The citation of geographical names mostly follows Juan Antonio Belmonte's 2001 book Die Orts- und Gewässernamen der Texte aus Syrien im 2. Jt. v. Chr. (Répetoire Géographique des Textes Cunéiformes 12/2). These citations reflect the local phonemic inventory. However, the normalization of syllabically written toponyms reflects the phonemic inventory of syllabic cuneiform (logographic elements are normalized with local phonemes).

The citation of personal names follows Richard Hess's 1993 study Amarna Personal Names, though we have accounted for subsequent scholarship and made a few adjustments to introduce consistency in theophoric elements (so Haddaya for his Addaya) or where his citation form differs from the individual's own self-identification (so Etakkama for his Itakkama). Logographically-written theophoric elements are occasionally normalized with two possibilities (e.g., HadduORTeššub) when the reading is unclear; the possibilities are generally determined by geographic location/dialect (so HadduORTeššub in Hurro-Akkadian texts and BaʿluORHaddu in Canaano-Akkadian texts). Otherwise, the normalization of logograms in personal names follows oracc/aemw's own protocol in understanding these elements to have had a 1cs pronominal possessive suffix (e.g., the elements DINGIR- and ŠEŠ- are normalized as ʾIli- and ʾAhi-, respectively; note the absence of macron over -i in keeping with Oracc protocol to not lengthen vowel in the normalization of proper nouns).

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