Morphological parsing

ETCSRI's Morphological Parsing

Table of contents

I. Noun Phrase
1. Template
2. Morpheme correspondences

II. Finite verb
1. Template
2. Morpheme correspondences

III. Non-finite verb
1. Template
2. Morpheme correspondences

Abbreviations

I. Noun Phrase

1. Template

N1 (Noun Phrase Slot 1) = Head
N2 = Modifier
N3 = Possessor (a Noun Phrase or a possessive enclitic)
N4 = Plural-marker or the ordinal number suffix
N5 = Case-marker
N6 = Copula

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6

e

ĝu

enee

ø

men

zu

kamak

e

am

ani

kama

ra

menden

bi

da

menzen

me

ta

meš

zunenee

še

nanna

anenee

'a

ak

gin

ne

2. Morpheme correspondences

2nd nominal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

e

N2

DEM

demonstrative pronoun

3rd nominal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ĝu

N3

1-SG-POSS

1st person singular possessive enclitic

zu

N3

2-SG-POSS

2nd person singular possessive enclitic

ani

N3

3-SG-H-POSS

3rd person singular human possessive enclitic

bi

N3

3-SG-NH-POSS

3rd person singular non-human possessive enclitic

bi

N3

DEM2

demonstrative pronoun

me

N3

1-PL-POSS

1st person plural possessive enclitic

zunenee

N3

2-PL-POSS

2nd person plural possessive enclitic

anenee

N3

3-PL-POSS

3rd person plural possessive enclitic

Remark1: Double vowels stand for long vowel

4th nominal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

enee

N4

PL

plural-marker

kamak

N4

ORD

ordinal number suffix

kama

N4

ORD

later form of the ordinal number suffix

5th nominal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ø

N5

ABS

absolutive case-marker

e

N5

ERG

ergative case-marker (df)

ra

N5

DAT-H

human dative case-marker (df)

e

N5

DAT-NH

non-human dative case-marker

da

N5

COM

comitative case-marker

ta

N5

ABL

ablative case-marker

še

N5

TERM

terminative case-marker

'a

N5

L1

locative1 case-marker (df)

ra

N5

L2-H

human locative2 case-marker

'a

N5

L2-NH

non-human locative2 case-marker

ra

N5

L3-H

human locative3 case-marker

e

N5

L3-NH

non-human locative3 case-marker

ak

N5

GEN

genitive case-marker

gin

N5

EQU

equative case-marker

ne

N5

L4

locative4 case-marker

N5

ADV

adverbiative suffix

Remark1: L4 is assumed to be an archaic locative case-marker (perhaps corresponding to the L1 verbal prefix /ni/) used only in forms like nu2-a-zu-ne (cf. Krecher 1993)
Remark2: For the system of cases used by ETCSRI, cf. Zólyomi 2007b and 2010.
Remark3: ADV is in fact a derivative morpheme.

6th nominal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

men

N6

COP-1-SG

first person singular form of the enclitic copula (df)

men

N6

COP-2-SG

second person singular form of the enclitic copula

am

N6

COP-3-SG

third person singular form of the enclitic copula

menden

N6

COP-1-PL

first person plural form of the enclitic copula

menzen

N6

COP-2-PL

second person plural form of the enclitic copula

meš

N6

COP-3-PL

third person plural form of the enclitic copula

nanna

N6

EXCEPT

particle referring to an exception to a negative statement

Remark1: For /nanna/ cf. Edzard 2003: 158 and Veenker and Johnson 2009: 361-362.

II. Finite verb

1. Template

Slot 1

The modal prefix ha-, negative prefix nu-, prefix of anteriority

Slot 2

Modal prefixes other than ha-, the finite-marker prefixes

Slot 3

Coordinator prefix

Slot 4

Ventive (cislocative) prefix

Slot 5

Middle prefix or 3nh pronominal prefix (specifying the person, gender and number of the first in the sequence of dimensional prefixes)

Slot 6

Initial Pronominal prefix (specifying the person, gender and number of the first in the sequence of dimensional prefixes)x

Slot 7

Dimensional I: dative prefix

Slot 8

Dimensional II: comitative prefix

Slot 9

Dimensional III: ablative or terminative prefix

Slot 10

Dimensional IV: locative1, locative2, or locative3 prefix

Slot 11

Final Pronominal prefix (referring to A or P, depending on the tense)

Slot 12

stem

Slot 13

present-future marker (in intransitive verbs)

Slot 14

pronominal suffix (referring A, S, or P depending on the tense)

Slot 15

Subordinator

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 V11 V12 V13 V14 V15

nu

i

nga

m

ba

1

a

da

ta

ni

1

STEM

ed

en

'a

ha

a

mu

b

r

ši

n

e

STEM-PF

en

ø

u

al

e

i

n

STEM-PL

e

STEM

ii

nn

e

b

STEM-RDP

enden

STEM-PL

aa

mee

ø

nnee

COP

enzen

STEM-RDP

ga

nnee

nan

enee

bara

nuš

ši

na

Remark1: In imperative verbal forms the STEM(-PL/RDP) occupies V1, while V12 is empty.

2. Morpheme correspondences

1st verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

nu

V1

NEG

negative prefix

ha

V1

MOD1

modal1 prefix

u

V1

ANT

prefix of anteriority

CF

V1

STEM

verbal stem

CF

V1

STEM-PL

plural verbal stem

CF

V1

STEM-RDP

reduplicated verbal stem

2nd verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ga

V1

MOD2

modal2 prefix

nan

V1

MOD3

modal3 prefix

bara

V1

MOD4

modal4 prefix

nuš

V1

MOD5

modal5 prefix

ši

V1

MOD6

modal6 prefix

na

V1

MOD7

modal7 prefix

i

V2

FIN

finite-marker

ii

V2

FIN-LI

lenghtened finite-marker signaling the syncopation of the vowel of the L1 prefix

ii

V2

FIN-L2

lenghtened finite-marker signaling the syncopation of the vowel of the L2 prefix

a

V2

FIN

finite-marker

aa

V2

FIN-L2

lenghtened finite-marker signaling the syncopation of the vowel of the L2 prefix

al

V2

FIN

finite-marker

Remark1: The compensatory lenghtening of the finite marker occurs when the L2 prefix in V10 (preceded by a pronominal prefix in either V5 or V6) or the vowel of the L1 prefix becomes syncopated. In these verbal forms the lenghtening of FIN is considered and glossed as the marker of L2. (Cf. Jagersma 2006)

3rd verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

nga

V3

COOR

coordinator prefix

4th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

m

V4

VEN

ventive (cislocative) prefix

mu

V4

VEN

ventive (cislocative) prefix

5th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ba

V5

MID

middle prefix

b

V5

3-NH

third person singular non-human initial pronominal prefix

6th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

1

V6

1-SG

first person singular initial pronominal prefix (= IPP)

r

V6

2-SG

second person singular IPP

e

V6

2-SG

second person singular IPP

nn

V6

3-SG-H

third person singular human IPP

mee

V6

1-PL

first person plural IPP

nnee

V6

3-PL

third person plural IPP

7th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

a

V7

DAT

dative prefix

8th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

da

V8

COM

comitative prefix

9th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ta

V9

ABL

ablative prefix

ši

V9

TERM

terminative prefix

še

V9

TERM

terminative prefix

10th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ni

V10

L1

locative1 prefix

ni

V10

LOC-OB

locative prefix used as causative marker in OB texts

n

V10

L1-SYN

syncopated locative1 prefix

i

V10

L2

locative2 prefix

e

V10

L2

locative2 prefix

ø

V10

L2-SYN

syncopated locative2 prefix

i

V10

L3

locative3 prefix

Remark1: A form like i₃-ib₂-ĝal₂ will thus be analyzed as
M1: V1=ii.V5=b.V10=ø.V12=ĝal.V14=ø
M2: V1=FIN-L2.V5=3-NH.V10=L2-SYN.V12=STEM.V14=3-SG-S

11th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

1

V11

1-SG-A

first person singular final pronominal prefix (= FPP) construed with an agent

e

V11

2-SG-A

second person singular FPP construed with an agent

n

V11

3-SG-H-A

third person singular human FPP construed with an agent (df)

n

V11

3-SG-H-P

third person singular human FPP construed with a patient

n

V11

3-SG-H-L3

third person singular human FPP construed with a participant in L3

n

V11

1-SG-A-OB

first person singular FPP construed with an agent in OB texts

b

V11

3-SG-NH-A

third person singular non-human FPP construed with an agent

b

V11

3-SG-NH-P

third person singular non-human FPP construed with a patient (df)

b

V11

3-SG-NH-L3

third person singular non-human FPP construed with a participant in L3

nnee

V11

3-PL-H-P

third person plurtal human FPP construed with a patient

Remark1: For final pronominal prefixes being construed with a participant in L3 cf. Zólyomi 1999: 221, fn 13 (with a different terminology) and Jagersma 2006.

12th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

CF

V12

STEM

verbal stem (df)

CF

V12

STEM-PF

present-future verbal stem

CF

V12

STEM-PL

plural verbal stem

CF

V12

STEM-RDP

reduplicated verbal stem

CF

V12

COP

the independent copula

Remark1: These can be combined, so for example sub2 is STEM-PF-PL, i.e. present-future plural stem of go. The order of qualifying glosses should follow this table (so sub2 may only be glossed as before but not as STEM-PL-PF).
Remark2: Unlike in The Penn Parsed Corpus of Sumerian [http://psd.museum.upenn.edu/ppcs/MorphologyTable.html], ETCSRI will not have a special template with special slots for imperative verbal forms: in imperative verbal forms the verbal stem is assumed to occupy V1.

13th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ed

V13

PF

present-future marker

en

V13

PLEN

verbal suffix marking the plurality of S or P

Remark: PLEN is attested only rarely (cf. Krecher 1965 and 1987).

14th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

en

V14

1-SG-A

first person singular agent suffix (df)

en

V14

1-SG-S

first person singular subject suffix

en

V14

1-SG-P

first person singular patient suffix

en

V14

2-SG-A

second person singular agent suffix

en

V14

2-SG-S

second person singular subject suffix

en

V14

2-SG-P

second person singular patient suffix

ø

V14

3-SG-S

third person singular human or non-human subject suffix

ø

V14

3-SG-P

third person singular human or non-human subject suffix (df)

e

V14

3-SG-A

third person singular human or non-human agent suffix

e

V14

3-SG-S-OB

third person singular human or non-human subject suffix in OB texts

enden

V14

1-PL-A

first person plural agent suffix

enden

V14

1-PL-S

first person plural subject suffix (df)

enden

V14

1-PL

first person plural suffix in plural transitive preterite verbal forms

enzen

V14

2-PL-A

second person plural agent suffix

enzen

V14

2-PL-S

second person plural subject suffix (df)

enzen

V14

2-PL

second person plural suffix in plural transitive preterite verbal forms

V14

3-PL-S

second person plural subject suffix

V14

3-PL-P

second person plural patient suffix (df)

V14

3-PL

third person plural suffix in plural transitive preterite verbal forms (df)

enee

V14

3-PL-A

third person plural agent suffix in present-future verbal forms

Remark1: In transitive preterite forms the plural agents are cross-referenced with a periphrastic construction involving the use of two affixes: the singular form of an FPP in V11 and the plural form of a pronominal suffix in V14, that is the FPP in V11 agrees in gender and person, while the suffix in V14 agrees in number and person with the agent. In these forms the suffix in V14 will be glossed as 1-PL, 2-PL, or 3-PL, i.e. without specifying its syntactic function, e.g.: ...-3-SG-H-A-stem-3-PL

15th verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

'a

V15

SUB

subordinator

III. Non-finite verb

1. Template

NV11 NV2 NV3 NV4

nu

STEM

ed

'a

STEM-PF

STEM-RDP

Remark1: A non-finite verbal form may occupy either N1 or N2. In the first case it functions as a Noun, while in the second case it functions as a modifier. So called adjectives are considered non-finite verbal forms.
Remark2: Just like non-finite verbal forms, cardinal numbers may be used both as modifiers and nouns, they will thus be inserted in the non-finite verbal template.

2. Morpheme correspondences

1st non-finite verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

nu

NV1

NEG

negative prefix

2nd non-finite verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

CF

NV2

STEM

verbal stem

CF

NV2

STEM-PF

present-future verbal stem

CF

NV2

STEM-PL

plural verbal stem

CF

NV2

STEM-RDP

reduplicated verbal stem

3rd non-finite verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

ed

NV3

PF

presen-future marker

4th non-finite verbal slot

M1 p-tag M2 description

'a

NV4

SUB

subordinator

Remark1: Basically we have 3 + 1 actual forms that should be generated: LAL, LAL-ed, LAL-a, and LAL-ed-a. The fourth form is marginal occurs only in the so called "pronominal conjugation", for example, STEM-ed-a-ĝu-ne. (The arguments of Keetman [2008] for a different analysis of these forms has been found unconvincing.)

References

Edzard, Dietz Otto (2003), Sumerian Grammar (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Sect. I, 71). Leiden - Boston: Brill 2003.
Jagersma, Bram (2006). 'The final person-prefixes and the passive', N.A.B.U., no. 93.
Keetman, Jan (2008), 'Der auf /-e(d)/ gebildete Stamm des sumerischen Verbums', Revue d'Assyriologie 102, 9-16.
Krecher, Joachim (1965), 'Zur sumerischen Grammatik', Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 57, 12-30.
Krecher, Joachim (1987), 'DU = ku₄(-r) "eintreten, "hineinbringen', Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 77, 7-21.
Krecher, Joachim (1993), 'The Suffix of Determination -/a/', Acta Sumerologica 15, 81-93.
Veenker, Ronald - J. Cale Johnson (2009), 'The appellate process in a legal record {di til-la} from Ur III Umma', AoF 36, 349-364.
Zólyomi, Gábor (1999), 'Directive Infix and Oblique Object in Sumerian: An Account of the History of their Relationship', Orientalia NS 68 (1999), 215-253.
Zólyomi, Gábor (2007b), 'Sumerisch', in Michael Streck, Hrsg., Schriften und Sprachen des Alten Orients. 3., überarb. Auflage. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 11-43.
Zólyomi, Gábor (2010), 'The Case of the Sumerian Cases', in Leonid Kogan et al., eds. Proceedings of the 53e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Vol. 1: Language in the Ancient Near East (2 parts) (Babel und Bibel, 4A-B). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 577-590.

The date of last modification: 09 Aug 2017

 
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