• K 00203+


  • CDLI P393786
  • K 00203 + K 03211 + K 04747 + K 05839 + K 05862 + K 06891 + K 09940 + K 10493 + K 13367 + K 18490 + K 20141
  • K 00203+ (Glass Text B)



  • Neo-Assyrian
  • Nineveh
  • technical procedure
  • glass-making


Oppenheim, A. Leo, Robert H. Brill, Dan Barag, and Axel Von Saldern. 1970. Glass and Glassmaking in Ancient Mesopotamia: An Edition of the Cuneiform Texts which Contain Instructions for Glassmakers with a Catalogue of Surviving Objects. London: The Corning Museum of Glass.

K 00203+ (K 00203+ (Glass Text B)) [glass-making]

Column i
o i 1o i 1

[e]-⸢nu⸣-ma -ši ku⸣-[u?]-⸢ri šá NA₄ [...]

(o i 1) When you lay the foundations of a glass-making kiln, [you search repeatedly for a suitable day] during a favorable month, so that [you may lay] the foundations of the kiln. As soon as [you complete (the construction of)] the kiln, in the house of the kiln (...) you set down Kūbu demons in order that an outsider or stranger cannot enter; one who is impure cannot cross their (Kūbu demons’) presence. You will constantly scatter aromatics offerings in their presence.

o i 22

[i]-na ITI šal-mi [...] x [...]

o i 33

⸣-ši ku-ú-ri [...]

o i 44

a-di ku-ú-ra tu⸣-[...]-ma te⸣-[... ...]

o i 55

i-na É ku-ú-⸢ri [...]-ri U₄ [...]

o i 66

d.BU-MEŠ tu-⸢šeš-šib-ma šá-nu-u a-⸢ḫu⸣-[u]

o i 77

NU KU₄ub NU [... pa]-ni-šú-nu la GIB

o i 88

gi-na-a si-ir-⸢qa [... pa]-ni-šú-nu ta-sár-raq

o i 99

u₄-um NA₄ ana ŠÀ ku⸣-[ú]-⸢ri tu-šèr-ri-du

(o i 9) On the day that you set down “glass” (lit: "stone") within the kiln, you make a sheep sacrifice in the presence of the Kūbu demons, (and) you set down a censer (with) juniper, you pour honey (over it). You (then) ignite a fire at the base of the kiln. You (may now) set down the “glass” within the kiln. The persons that you bring close to the kiln (...) must be purified, (only then) can [you allow them to sit near] (and overlook) the kiln.

o i 1010


o i 1111

ŠIM.LI GARan LÀL [...] BAL-ma

o i 1212

IZI ina KI.TA ku-ú-⸢ri aḫ-ma

o i 1313

NA₄ a-na ŠÀ ku-ú-ri [tu]-šèr-⸢ri-da?

o i 1414

-MEŠ šá ana UGU ku-u-⸢ri [...]

o i 1515

ú-tab-ba-bu-ma ana UGU ku-ú-⸢ri [...]

o i 1616

GIŠ-ḪI.A šá ina KI.TA ku-u-ri ta-⸢šar⸣-[ra-pu]

(o i 16) You burn various wooden logs at the base of the kiln (including): thick logs of poplar that are stripped, and quru-wood containing no knots, bound up with apu-straps; (these logs are to be) cut during the month of Abu; these are the various logs that should go beneath your kiln.

o i 1717

gišÁSAL kab-bar-ta qa-li-[ip-tu]

o i 1818

qu-ru-u šá ki-iṣ-ra la na-⸢du⸣-[u]

o i 1919

i-na kuša-pi ṣab-tu ina itiNE KU₅⸣[su]

o i 2020

GIŠ-ḪI.A an-nu-u ina KI.TA ku-ú-ri-ka lil-⸢lik

o i 2121

šum-ma na₄ZA.GÌN.DUR₅ ana -ka 10 MA.NA IM.MA.NA

(o i 21) If you want to make “lapis lazuli” (zagindurû-glass): you grind separately 10 minas of immanakku-stone, 15 mana of salicornia ashes, and 1 2/3 mana of “white plant.” You mix (them) together. You set (the glass) into the cold kiln with four openings and arrange it [between] the openings. You burn a good, smokeless fire. You remove [the "glass"] as soon as it (begins to) turn white.

o i 2222

15 MA.NA NE úNAGA 1 2/3 MA.NA Ú BABBAR a-ḫe-e

o i 2323

[ta]-⸢mar⸣-raq 1niš ḪI.ḪI ana ku-ú-ri šá 4 IGI-MEŠ-šá

o i 2424

[ka]-⸢ṣi-ti tu-še-rid-[ma] ina bi-rit IGI-MEŠ

o i 2525

[ta]-red-di IZI [ṭa-ab-ta] la qa-tir-ta

o i 2626

[ta]-⸢šár⸣-rap a-di [NA₄] i?-pi⸣-iṣ-ṣu-u

o i 2727

tu⸣-šel-lam-ma tu-⸢kàṣ?⸣-[ṣi ...]-⸢x-raq?

(o i 27) You cool it off, and grind it down (again). You (then) [collect it] within a clean dabtu-crucible, you place [the "glass" into a cold] kiln [chamber], and burn [a good and smokeless fire] until (...); you pour it onto a [fire] brick; [its name is "lapis lazuli"].

o i 2828

[a]-na da-ab-ti za⸣-[ku-ti ...]

o i 2929

a-na ku-ú-ri šá [...]

o i 3030

E₁₁id IZI ṭa-⸢ab-ta x [...]

o i 3131

ta-šár-rap a-di i-⸢ḫar⸣-[ra-ṣu ...]

o i 3232

ana UGU a-gur-ri ta-⸢na⸣-az-za-lam-ma na₄[... ...]

o i 3333

10 MA.NA URUDU-ḪI.A ni-ḫa ana da-ab-ti za⸣-ku-⸢ti

(o i 33) You put 10 minas of "slow copper" into a clean dabtu-crubible. You place it in a hot chamber kiln, and you close the door of the kiln. You burn a strong, smokeless fire until the "(slow) copper" glows red. You crush and grind (finely) 10 minas of zukû-glass. You open the door of the kiln and throw (the fritted zukû-glass) onto the "(slow) copper," until the zukû-glass atop the "(slow) copper" fuses, and the "(slow) copper" settles at the bottom of the "glass" mixture. You stir (the mixture) with a rake once, twice, and thrice (until ...) the "(slow) copper" (...)

o i 3434

ta-šak-kan a-na ku-ú-ri ša ták-kan-ni

o i 3535

em-me-ti tu-šèr-rid-ma ku-u-ri tu-kàt-tam

o i 3636

IZI dan-na-ta la qa-tir-ta ta-šár-rap

o i 3737

a-di URUDU-ḪI.A i-raš-šu-šu 10 MA.NA za-ke-e

o i 3838

ta-ḫaš-šal-ma! ta-mar-raq ku-ú-ri

o i 3939

ta-pe-et-ti-ma ana UGU URUDU-ḪI.A ŠUBdi

o i 4040

a-di zu-ku-ú UGU URUDU-ḪI.A i-maḫ-ḫa-ḫu-ma

o i 4141

URUDU-ḪI.A ina KI.TA NA₄ i-šak-ku-nu

o i 4242

i-na mu-⸢ter⸣-ri 1šú 2šú 3šú ta-bi-iḫ-ḫiš

o i 4343

a?-di? x-x-x URUDU-ḪI.A x-x-ab?-x

(rest of column missing)
Column ii
o ii 1o ii 1

a-di i-ḫar-⸢ra⸣-[ṣu ...]

(o ii 1) As soon as it glows yellow, you (....) and once it has become yellow (....) and when the "glass" is solid (....), you pour it out [into a new dabtu-crucible ... and that which] comes out (is): [lapis lazuli]

o ii 22

ul-tu iḫ-tar-[ṣu ...]

o ii 33

šum-ma NA₄ up⸣-[pu-uq ...]

o ii 44

ta-na-⸢az⸣-[za-lam ...]

o ii 55

il-lam-ma [...]

o ii 66


(o ii 6) Copy of an [ancient tablet]

o ii 77

šum-ma na₄ZA.⸢GÌN⸣.[DUR₅ a-na] -ka 10 MA.⸢NA [...]

(o ii 7) If you want to make “lapis lazuli” (zagindurû-glass): you grind separately 10 minas of immanakku-stone (and) 12 minas of salicornia. You mix (these ingredients) together, and set down (the mixture) into a cold kiln with four chambers, arranging it between the openings. You burn a good smokeless fire until your mixture [glows red]1. You take it out into the open air and you cool it off.

o ii 88

12 MA.NA a-[ḫu-us]-su a-ḫe-e ta⸣-[mar-raq]

o ii 99

1niš ḪI.ḪI a-⸢na [ku]-⸢ú⸣-ri šá 4 IGI-MEŠ-šá ka-⸢ṣi⸣-[te]

o ii 1010

tu-šèr-rid-ma ina bi-rit IGI-MEŠ ta-⸢red⸣-[di]

o ii 1111

IZI ṭa-ab-ta la qa-tir-ta ta-šár-[rap]

o ii 1212

a-di bil-lu-ka U₄-MEŠ tu-šel-lam-ma tu-⸢kàṣ⸣-[ṣi]

o ii 1313

GUR-ma ta-mar-raq a-⸢na da-ab-ti za-⸢ku⸣-[ti ...]

(o ii 13) You grind (the mixture) once again. You (then) collect it within a clean dabtu-crucible, and you set it into a cold kiln chamber. [You burn] a good smokeless fire, and you [cover it] as soon as the mixture glows yellow. [After (the mixture) has turned yellow, you transfer it] onto the top of a fire brick. [Its name is "lapis lazuli" (zukû-glass).]

o ii 1414

a-na ku-u-ri šá ták-kan-[ni] ka-ṣi-ti? [...]

o ii 1515

IZI ṭa-ab-ta la qa⸣-[tir-ta ...]

o ii 1616

a-di i-ḫar-ra-⸢ṣu [...]

o ii 1717

ana UGU a-gur-⸢ri [...]

o ii 1818

[x]-⸢x x⸣-[...]

(o ii 18) (broken lines)

(2 lines missing)
o ii 2121

10 MA.[NA ...]

o ii 2222


o ii 2323


o ii 2424


o ii 1'1'


o ii 2'2'


o ii 3'3'

-me-⸢di [...]

(o ii 3') the base of [... you burn] a good smokeless fire (...) the fire from (...) once your mixture (...) in the kiln (...) as soon as the glass turns red, [you close the door of the kiln.] After the "glass" has turned red [you close the door of the kiln] (...) once it has turned yellow [you stir it ...] After the "glass" has turned yellow (...) when the glass is solid (....) you pour it out (...) and (that which) emerges is: ["lapis lazuli"]

o ii 4'4'

IZI ṭa-[ab-ta ...]

o ii 5'5'

IZI ul-[tu ...]

o ii 6'6'

a-di bil⸣-[lu-ka ...]

o ii 7'7'

ina ku-⸢ú⸣-[ri ...]

o ii 8'8'

a-⸢na [...]

o ii 9'9'


o ii 10'10'

x x x [...]

o ii 11'11'

a-di NA₄ i-raš-⸢šu⸣-[šu ...]

o ii 12'12'

ul- NA₄ ir-taš-šu [...]

o ii 13'13'

a-di i-ḫar-ra-ṣu [...]

o ii 14'14'

ul- iḫ-tar-ṣu [...]

o ii 15'15'

šum-ma NA₄ up-pu-[uq ...]

o ii 16'16'

ta-na-az-za-lam-ma [...]

o ii 17'17'

il-lam-ma [...]

o ii 18'18'

[...] MA.NA te-er-[si-tu ...]

(o ii 18') To x minas of tersītu (you add) (...) minas of amnakku (....)

o ii 19'19'

[... MA].⸢NA na₄am-na-⸢ak⸣-[ku ...]

o ii 20'20'

[... x]-⸢ul?⸣-[...]

(rest of column missing)
Column i
r i 1'r i 1'

šum-⸢ma [...]

(r i 1') If [you want to make "fast bronze," you (first) set down, into a cold] kiln 10 minas of (...) you ignite [a proper fire. You frit (the ingredients; lit: "you cause them to turn white"). You frit them] once again [using an old harāgu-crucible.] You [pour water] onto the mixture (and) [on a favorable day you make] an offering (...) kiln chamber

r i 2'2'

10 MA.⸢NA [...]

r i 3'3'

ina ku-u⸣-[ri ...]

r i 4'4'

ta-⸢šár?⸣-[rap ...]

r i 5'5'

tu⸣-[tar ...]

r i 6'6'

ina ŠÀ [...]

r i 7'7'

uduSISKUR [...]

r i 8'8'

an-[... ...]

r i 9'9'

ša tuk?⸣-[kan-ni ...]

r i 10'10'

ina -[ul-te ...]

(r i 10') In the dead of [night, you ignite the kiln chamber ... you (prepare?)] poplar [... At daybreak, you ignite (the wood)] beneath [the kiln. You (then) return (once again) to your] harāgu-crucible. [You set down 1/3 mina of "fast copper"] using a suʾlu-tool. [You set down the harāgu-crucible (... you strengthen] the fire [..., (and) you guard the fire until cracks (begin to)] appear [... this is tērsītu] of reddish "lapis lazuli" (uqnû-glass). [You let it rest within the kiln. After you have continuosly rested] "the fast bronze," [you set it over] a fire brick. You throw water over it. [Procedure for reddish "lapis lazuli" (uqnû-glass).]

r i 11'11'

gišÁSAL [...]

r i 12'12'

ina KI⸣.[TA ...]

r i 13'13'

ḫa-⸢ra⸣-[ga-ti ...]

r i 14'14'

ina su⸣-[-li ...]

r i 15'15'

IZI [...]

r i 16'16'

a-di [...]

r i 17'17'

ana ŠÀ [...]

r i 18'18'

im-mar-[... ...]

r i 19'19'


r i 20'20'

na₄ZA.GÌN SA₅? [...]

r i 21'21'

TA ZABAR [...]

r i 22'22'

A-MEŠ ina UGU [...]

r i 23'23'

šum-ma na₄bu-⸢ṣu [...]

(r i 23') If you [want to make] būṣu-glass, [you mix together: 5 minas of ṭikmēnu-ashes] from salicornia "horns", [5 minas of immanakku, shekels of "male" anzahhu-glass], and 5 shekels of shells. [You set it down into a] cold [kiln chamber] and you ignite [a good fire. You frit (the mixture). You set it into an old] harāgu-crucible (...) fine-quality būṣu-glass.

r i 24'24'

ša úNAGA [SI ...]

r i 25'25'

5 KISAL nam-⸢ru⸣-[tum? ...]

r i 26'26'

ka-ṣi-ti [...]

r i 27'27'

ta-šar-⸢rap [...]

r i 28'28'

ina ḫa-⸢ra⸣-[gi ...]

(8 lines missing)
r i 37'37'

[... na₄]⸢ZA⸣.GÌN SIG₅ [...]

r i 38'38'

[...] (blank) [...]

(r i 38') (broken)

r i 39'39'

[... na₄]⸢DU₈⸣.ŠI.A a-⸢na [-ka]

(r i 39') If you want to make "quartz" (dušû-glass), you grind together: x minas of salicornia, 2 1/2 minas of [...], x minas of amnakku, together with 1/2 mina of [... You set (the glass)] into the cold kiln with four openings and arrange it between the openings. You burn a [good], smokeless [fire] until [your mixture] glows green. You control2 (the color change) using the fire. After, [the mixture] has turned green, you take it out and cool it off.

r i 40'40'

[...] úNAGA 2? ⸢1/2? [...]

r i 41'41'

[...]-ku 1niš ina 1/2 MA.[NA ...]

r i 42'42'

[...]-⸢e ta-mar-raq TÉŠ.BI [...]

r i 43'43'

[šá] 4 IGI-MIN-šá ka-ṣi-⸢ti? [...]

r i 44'44'

i-na bi-rit IGI-MIN ta-red-⸢di [...]

r i 45'45'

la qa-tir-ta ta-šár-rap a⸣-[di ...]

r i 46'46'

ir-ri-qu ina IZI ta-red-di ul⸣-[ ...]

r i 47'47'

i-te-er-qu tu-šel-lam-ma tu-⸢kàṣ⸣-[ṣi ...]

r i 48'48'

ta-mar-raq a-na da-ab-ti za-ku-⸢ti [...]

(r i 48') You grind [(the mixture) once again]. You [collect it] within a clean dabtu-crucible, [and you set down the mixture] into a cold kiln chamber. You burn a good smokeless fire until (the glass) glows yellow. You stir it once in your direction. You will see "someone" at the opening of the kiln. Once the glass is solid and takes on the appearance (lit: face) of quartz (... you add?) x minas of amnakku, (...) tuskû, (...) minas of shells; (these) ingredients

r i 49'49'

a-na ku-ú-ri šá ták-kan-ni ka-ṣi-ti x?⸣-[...]

r i 50'50'

IZI ṭa-ab-ta la qa-tir-ta ta-šár-[rap]

r i 51'51'

a-di i-ḫar-ra-ṣu ma-la-ni ana pa-ni-ka ta-bi-iḫ-[ḫiš]

r i 52'52'

TA IGI ma-am-ma tam-mar-ma šum-ma NA₄ up-pu-⸢uq

r i 53'53'

ù zi-im na₄DUḪ.ŠI.A it-taš-kin

Column ii
r ii 1'1'

[x MA.NA] na₄am-na⸣-[ku ...]

r ii 2'2'

[...]-⸢ti? tu-us-ku-ú [...]

r ii 3'3'

[...] nam⸣-ru-tum maš-ka-an-[ti? ...]

r ii 4'4'

[šum]-⸢ma a-na na₄ÁŠ.GI₄.GI₄ x⸣-[...]

(r ii 4') If you want [to make] "turquoise" (ašgigû-glass), [you mix] repeatedly: (...). You collect (these ingredients). You place the base of the teššu-mould onto the top of the (...) within the utūnu-kiln. You fire it for seven days, and close the utūnu-kiln. On the tenth day, you open (the kiln) and take out (the mixture).

r ii 5'5'

ta-sa-ḫur-ma a-na tam-šil-te te⸣-[es-sip]

r ii 6'6'

-di tam-šil-ti-ka te--ši ina UGU [...]

r ii 7'7'

a-na ŠÀ UDUN GARan-ma U₄ 7-KÁM IZI [...]

r ii 8'8'

UDUN te-pe-ḫi-ma a-na U₄ 10-KÁM te-⸢pe⸣-[et-ti]

r ii 9'9'

tu-še-la-šu-ma a-na 1 MA.NA NA₄ ba--⸢li

(r ii 9') (For) your second processing, you once again crush and grind: 1 kisal of anzahhu washed of šiktu-impurities, (unspecified quantity of) tuskû, 1 shekel of shells, 1 kisal of salicornia, (adding these) to 1 mina of molten (lit: "heated) glass. You stir it, and mix it, just as you had done previously. You keep a fire burning. You remove it; this is "fine-quality3 quartz" (lit: green dušû-glass), which has been processed twice.

r ii 10'10'

1 KISAL na₄AN.ZAḪ me-sa-⸢at?

r ii 11'11'

ši-ik-tu tu-us-ku-ú 1 GÍN nam-ru-tum

r ii 12'12'

1 KISAL úNAGA ta-sa-ḫur-ma šá-nu-te-ka

r ii 13'13'

ta-ḫaš-šal ta-mar-raq tul-ta-bal

r ii 14'14'

ta-ma-ra-as-ma ki-i qa-at pa-ni-ma

r ii 15'15'

IZI ta-šár-rap tu-še-lam-ma

r ii 16'16'

na₄DU₈.ŠI.A SIG₇ ša 2šu tu-ur-ru an-ni-tu

r ii 17'17'

maš-ši-tu ša la-a ša-rat ŠEe

(r ii 17') (These are) the ingredients, not (missing even a single) "hair of barley"4

r ii 18'18'

a-na 20 MA.NA na₄am-na-ku

(r ii 18') To 20 minas of amnakku (you add) 1 biltu-unit of salicornia "horns," 2 minas of anzahhu, 10 shekels of shells, 1 mina of tuskû, 5 shekels of lulû; (that which) emerges is "quartz" (dušû-glass).

r ii 19'19'


r ii 20'20'

2 MA.NA AN.ZAḪ 10 GÍN nam-ru-tum

r ii 21'21'

1 MA.NA tu-us-ku-ú 5 GÍN lu-lu-u

r ii 22'22'

il-la-ma na₄DU₈.ŠI.A

r ii 23'23'

šum-ma bu-ṣu a-na -ka

(r ii 23') If you want to make būṣu-glass, tērsītu of "lapis lazuli" (uqnû-glass), or "quartz" (dušû-glass); (these are) the complete (procedures). Palace of Assurbanipal, king of the world, king of Aššur, who was bestowed with the widom of the gods Nabu and Tašmetu (...) inspected (...)

r ii 25'25'

ter-<<ni>>-si-te na₄ZA.GÌN u na₄DU₈.ŠI.A AL.TIL

r ii 26'26'

É.GAL m-šur--A LUGAL ŠÚ LUGAL kur-šurki

r ii 27'27'


r ii 28'28'

e-x-x-x IGI-MIN x-x⸣-[...]

1 in other exemplars : adi billuka iraššušu ana ūmē tušellamma tukaṣṣi; here iraššušu must be reconstructed

2 the use of the verb redû in the phrase ina išāti tareddi, translates lit : "with fire , you direct it ." In this context , "it " refers to the green color change initiated in the previous line ; the semantic range of the verb redû can be expanded to "controlling a flame"

3 "fine-quality " is in fact written SIG₇ (arqu), literally , "green ." This unusual reading is owed to the fact that within the glass-making procedures , "fine-quality " glass is qualified as being /sig /, without regard for the index value of the sign . As such , the values : sig₅ , sig₇ , and sig ("good ," "green ," and "thin " respectively ), can all be said to signify "fine-quality " glass . These are not scribal errors , but purposeful double-meanings.

4 "not (missing ) a hair of barley " is likely an idiomatic expression meaning "everything little detail has been accounted accounted for "; equally , the line issues a warning that may be translated : "don't miss a thing!"

Edition by Eduardo A Escobar