People, gods & places

These are the ancient names that appear in this website. Unless otherwise noted, all the people's names are of Akkadian TT  origin.

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   Ŋ   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   Ṣ   Š   T   Ṭ   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   ~ 

A

Abd-el Hamid, Hazim (person)
Iraqi archaeologist and former Director of Mosul Museum TT , who led archaeological excavation and restoration of the Northwest Palace in 1971-4.
Abu es-Soof, Behnam (person)
AD 1931-2012. Iraqi archaeologist who directed Iraqi excavations in Nimrud, 1959-60, concentrating on the throneroom of the Northwest Palace", which Mallowan's PGP  team had not wanted to do.
Adad (deity)
Weather god, of storms and beneficial rains. See the entry for Iškur/Adad on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website for more details.
Adad-nerari II (person)
"Adad is my ally": king of Assyria, r.911-891 BC. Son and successor of Aššur-dan II; succeeded by Tukulti-Ninurta II.
Adad-nerari III (person)
"Adad is my ally": king of Assyria, r.810-783 BC. Son and successor of Šamši-Adad V PGP ; father of Shalmaneser IV and Aššur-dan III.
Adad-šumu-uṣur (person)
"O Adad, protect the name!": Esarhaddon PGP 's chief exorcist TT , member of the prominent scribal family descended from Gabbu-ilani-ereš PGP .
Adda-idri (person)
"Adda is my help" (Aramaic TT  name): king of Damascus PGP  who led an anti-Assyrian coalition during the reign of Shalmaneser III PGP .
Aegean (place)
Sea between Turkey and Greece, and the islands and mainlands that surround it.
Ahunu (person)
"Little brother" (West Semitic TT  name): ruler of Bit-Adini PGP , an Aramean kingdom situated in northern Syria to east of the Euphrates. Ahunu had been a vassal of Assurnasirpal II PGP  but rebelled against Assyria on the accession of Shalmaneser III PGP . Shalmaneser captured Ahunu's capital, Til-Barsip PGP , and renamed it Kar-Shalmaneser. Ahunu fled across the Euphrates but was eventually defeated by Shalmaneser, who deported him to Assyria.
al-Aseel, Naji (person)
Senior Iraqi politician and diplomat, Director-General of Antiquities TT , 1944-58.
al-Husri, Sati' (person)
AD 1882-1968. Eminent educator, politician and promoter of Arab nationalism, who became Iraq's first non-European Director-General of Antiquities TT , 1934-41.
al-Iraqi, Said (person)
Iraqi archaeologist who directed excavations in the Northwest Palace" at Nimrud, 1975-77. His finds inlcuded a large cache of ivories in Well AJ.
Amanus (place)
Mountain range to the east of modern-day Iskanderun in Turkey, running parallel to the northern Mediterranean coast.
Amurru (place)
"The West", Assyrian name for northern Syria and the Levant PGP .
Anatolia (place)
Roughly, the western two-thirds of modern-day Turkey excluding Istanbul and its surroundings.
Andrae, Walter (person)
AD 1875-1956. German archaeologist. Excavated at Babylon PGP  in 1899 with Robert Koldewey PGP , using new stratigraphic techniques. Excavated at Assur PGP  between 1903-14. Briefly visited Nimrud.
Anu (deity)
The sky god, worshipped especially in Uruk PGP . See the page about An/Anu on the Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website for more information.
Anzu (deity)
Mythical demon TT , half lion and half eagle, who stole the Tablet of Destinies TT  but was defeated by the god Ninurta PGP . See the page on Anzu for more details.
Arbela (place)
Major Assyrian city and provincial capital; modern Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Armenia (place)
In ancient times, the mountainous region to the north of Assyria, between Anatolia PGP  and the Caspian Sea.
Arrapha (place)
An Assyrian provincial capital TT  just east of Assur PGP ; modern Kirkuk.
Arrow (heavenly body)
Constellation including the star now called Sirius, these days considered part of the constellation Canis Major.
Arwad (place)
An island city in Phoenicia PGP ; classical Aradus, off modern Tartus in Syria.
Aššur (deity)
The national god of Assyria and embodiment of the city of Assur PGP . For more detail, see the page on Aššur.
Assur (place)
An Assyrian city on the Tigris PGP  river, the original capital and ancestral home of the royal family and many Assyrian nobles, now the archaeological site of Qalaat Sherqat PGP .
Assurbanipal (person)
Aššur-bani-apli, "Aššur PGP  is the creator of brothers": King of Assyria (r.668-630? BC). Son and successor of Esarhaddon; father of Aššur-etel-ilani PGP  and Sin-šarru-iškun PGP . For more detail see the page on Assurbanipal on the Knowledge and Power website.
Aššur-bel-kala (person)
"Aššur PGP  is the lord of all": king of Assyria, r.1073-1056 BC. Son and successor of Tiglath-pileser I.
Aššur-daʾʾin-aplu (person)
"O Aššur PGP , strengthen the heir!": Son of Shalmaneser III PGP  who led a major revolt against his father.
Aššur-etel-ilani (person)
"Aššur PGP  is the prince of the gods": King of Assyria (r.630?-623? BC), who ruled from Nineveh PGP . Son and successor of Assurbanipal PGP  and brother of his successor, Sin-šarru-iškun PGP .
Aššur-išmanni (person)
Better, Aššur-šimanni, "O Aššur PGP , hear me!": scribe and eponym official of Tiglath-pileser I PGP , who wrote a dedication to Tašmetu PGP  at Assur PGP .
Assurnasirpal I (person)
Aššur-naṣir-apli, "Aššur PGP  is the protector of the heir": King of Assyria (r.1049-1031 BC). Son and successor of Šamši-Adad IV; father of Shalmaneser II and Aššur-rabi II.
Assurnasirpal II (person)
Aššur-naṣir-apli, "Aššur PGP  is the protector of the heir". King of Assyria, (r.883-859 BC). Founder of Kalhu as the capital of the Assyrian empire and father of king Shalmaneser III PGP . See the article on Assurnasirpal.
Aššur-nirka-daʾʾin (person)
"O Aššur PGP , strengthen your yoke!": chief cup-bearer of king Assurnasirpal II PGP .
Aššur-reṣuwa (person)
"Aššur PGP  is my helper": chief priest at Ninurta's temple in Kalhu during the reign of Esarhaddon PGP .
Aššur-šumi-aṣbat (person)
"O Aššur PGP  I have grasped my name!": scribe in the royal palace at Assur PGP  during the reign of Tiglath-pileser I PGP ; an early devotee of the god Nabu PGP .
Aššur-uballiṭ I (person)
"Aššur PGP  brought him to life": king of Assyria, r.1365-1330 BC. Founder of the Middle Assyrian TT  empire.
Ataliya (person)
(meaning unknown): Queen of Assyria, wife of Sargon II PGP , buried in the Northwest Palace at Kalhu.
Azag (deity)
Sumerian name for a powerful stone demon TT  defeated by the god Ninurta PGP ; Akkadian asakku.

B

Baba (deity)
Goddess and spouse of the god Zababa, with several cult centres in Assyria; also written as Bau or Babu. See the page about Baba on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website for more details.
Baba-šumu-iddina (person)
"Baba PGP  has given a name": astrologer TT  at Kalhu during the reign of Assurbanipal PGP .
Babilayu (person)
"The Babylonian": Royal exorcist TT  in late ninth-century Kalhu; member of the scholarly Ištaran-šumu-ukin PGP  family. Grandson of Ištaran-mudammiq PGP , father of Marduk-[...] PGP .
Babylon (place)
The most important city of Babylonia PGP , near the modern Iraqi city of Hilla.
Babylonia (place)
The territory to the south of the Assyrian heartland, formerly an independent polity and constantly reclaiming that independence from Assyria. For more detail, see the page about Babylonia on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Badger, Rev George (person)
AD 1815-1888. British missionary TT  and Arabic scholar, who worked across the Middle East as a teacher and translator. Worked in the region around Mosul PGP  between 1842 and 1844, accompanied by Rev James Phillips Fletcher PGP .
Baghdad (place)
Modern capital city of Iraq, formerly a provincial capital of the Ottoman TT  empire. Did not exist in antiquity; founded in AD 762.
Balaṭi (person)
An abbreviated name containing either the element "alive" or "life": member of staff at Ezida in Kalhu in the late seventh century, exact function unknown.
Balawat (place)
Site of the ancient city of Imgur-Ellil PGP .
Banitu (person)
"Creatress": Queen of Assyria, wife of Shalmaneser V.
Banunu (person)
"Little son" (West Semitic TT  name): exorcist TT  with no known family affiliation working at Kalhu and Nineveh PGP  during the 7th century BC.
Basra (place)
Modern city at the head of the Gulf in southern Iraq, formerly a provincial capital of the Ottoman TT  empire. Did not exist in antiquity; founded in AD 636.
Baʾal (person)
"Lord" (West Semitic TT  name): king of Tyre PGP  in the early seventh century, defeated by king Esarhaddon PGP .
Bel (deity)
"Lord", a name of the god Marduk PGP .
Bel-ibni (person)
"Bel PGP  has created": Ruler of Babylon PGP , placed on the throne by king Sennacherib PGP  and promptly removed by him again in 700 BC after a failed attempt to gain independence.
Bell, Gertrude (person)
AD 1868-1926. British traveller, archaeologist and administrator, heavily involved in the creation of Mandate TT  Iraq and founder of the Iraq Museum TT  in Baghdad PGP  in the early 1920s. The British School of Archaeology in Iraq TT  was created in her memory.
Bel-tarṣi-ilumma (person)
"Bel-tarṣi is god": Governor TT  of Kalhu and eponym TT  official during the reign of Adad-nerari III PGP , c.808-793 BC. A eunuch TT , he dedicated a statue to the king in Nabu's temple and probably lived in the large residence opposite the temple. Shown on BSAI's TT  plan as "GOVERNOR'S PALACE".
Bel-upahhir (person)
"Bel PGP  has assembled": astrologer TT  and senior scholar of king Sennacherib PGP , still ative in Esarhaddon PGP 's reign.
Birch, Samuel (person)
AD 1813-1885. Egyptologist and, from 1866, Keeper of Oriental Antiquities in the British Museum TT ; co-founder of the Society for Biblical Archaeology TT  in 1870.
Birtayu (person)
"Man from Birtu PGP ": court physician TT  at Kalhu in the early eighth century.
Birtu (place)
Region north of the modern Iraqi town of Dohuk.
Bit-Adini (place)
Aramean kingdom with capital Til-Barsip PGP , situated in northern Syria to the east of the Euphrates PGP ; conquered and integrated into Assyria under Shalmaneser III PGP .
Black, Jeremy (person)
AD 1951-2004. British Assyriologist TT  who worked for the BSAI TT  in Iraq in the 1980s and was later appointed Lecturer in Assyriology at the University of Oxford (1988-2004). He completed Donald Wiseman's PGP  work on the scholarly tablets from Nabu's temple in Nimrud.
Bombay (place)
Former name of the city of Mumbai on the northwest coast of India. It was an important trade port for the East India Company TT . It was renamed in 1996.
Borsippa (place)
City a few kilometres southwest of Babylon PGP  cult centre of the god Nabu PGP .
Botta, Paul-Émile (person)
AD 1802-1870. French consul TT  at Mosul PGP  and natural historian TT  who excavated the palace of Sargon II at Dur-Šarruken PGP  in 1843.
Boutcher, William (person)
AD 1814-1900. Artist who worked alongside Austen Henry Layard PGP , and later William Kennett Loftus PGP , at Nineveh and Nimrud in the 1850s.
Buckingham, James Silk (person)
AD 1786-1855. British traveller and author, who journeyed in the Middle East extensively between 1813 and 1818, and visited Nimrud in 1816.
Budge, Ernest Wallis (person)
AD 1857-1934. Egyptologist and Assyriologist TT  who worked for the British Museum TT , serving as its Keeper of Oriental Antiquities, 1894-1924.
Burnt Palace (place)
Large official building west of Nabu's temple in Kalhu, excavated by William Kennett Loftus PGP  in 1854 and again by the BSAI TT  in the 1950s. It was occupied from at least the Middle Assryrian TT  period to after the end of empire. Loftus found a large number of the Nimrud ivories and letters addressed to king Sargon II PGP  in the throne room. Shown on BSAI's TT  plan.
Bur-Zinani (person)
"Son of Zinanu" (West Semitic TT  name): court physician TT  at Kalhu in the early eighth century.
Byblos (place)
Classical name for a Phoenician PGP  city on the eastern Mediterranean coast, Assyrian Gubla, modern Ğubail in Lebanon.

C

Canning, Stratford (person)
AD 1786-1880. British ambassador to the Ottoman TT  empire in Constantinople PGP , 1825-8 and 1841-58; supporter of Layard PGP 's work at Nimrud.
Carchemish (place)
Major city and provincial TT  capital of Assyria, situated on the Euphrates PGP  on the modern-day border between Turkey and Syria.
Central Palace (place)
Built by king Tiglath-pileser III PGP , south of the Northwest Palace in Kalhu; its bas-reliefs TT  were later re-used for king Esarhaddon PGP 's new Southwest Palace PGP . Its meagre remains were investigated several times in the nineteenth century but it was not until the 1970s that Janusz Meuszyński's PGP  team systematically excavated it. Shown on BSAI's TT  plan.
Chelebi, Abdul Hussein (person)
Eminent Iraqi politician under the British Mandate TT , holding several different cabinet posts.
Christie, Agatha (person)
AD 1890-1976. World-famous detective novelist and wife of Sir Max Mallowan PGP . Member of the BSAI TT  expedition to Nimrud in the 1950s.
Clive, Hon Robert Henry (person)
AD 1789-1854. British politician and keen amateur antiquarian TT , who visited Nimrud in 1850
Commagene (place)
Provincial TT  capital, Assyrian Kummuhi; modern Samsat in Turkey (now flooded by the Ataturk Dam).
Constantinople (place)
Former name of the city of Istanbul in Turkey. Although the Ottomans TT  formally changed its name to Istanbul in the 1450s AD, the old name Constantinople continued in use, especially in English, until the creation of the modern Turkish state in 1923.
Cooper, Frederick Charles (person)
AD 1810-80. British artist who worked alongside Austen Henry Layard PGP  on his second expedition to Nimrud, 1849-51.
Crete (place)
Large island in the Mediterranean, demarcating the southern limits of the Aegean PGP  cultural zone.
Cyprus (place)
Island in the northeastern Mediterranean, split into several kingdoms whose rulers were Assyrian vassals TT . For more detail, see the page about Cyprus on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Cyrus the Great (person)
Achaemenid TT  king of Persia, conquerer of Babylonia PGP , r.539-530 BC.

D

Dagan (deity)
Grain god from the eastern Mediterranean; see the page about Dagan on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Damascus (place)
Assyrian provincial TT  capital, formerly the capital of an independent kingdom and now the capital of modern-day Syria.
Damkina (deity)
The spouse of the great god Ea PGP , worshipped especially at Kalhu.
Dayai (person)
(meaning unknown): (chief) firewood supplier to Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the late seventh century.
Dayyan-Aššur (person)
"Aššur PGP  is judge": vizier TT  of king Shalmaneser III PGP .
Delaporte, Henri-Pacifique (person)
AD 1815-1877. French consul TT  in Baghdad PGP , 1861-64, who undertook excavations at Nimrud and Babylon PGP , sending material to the Louvre TT , Paris.
Delta (place)
The northernmost region of Egypt PGP , where the river Nile fans out into many small rivers forming a large estuary to the Mediterranean. In antiquity, this area often had its own political and cultural characteristics.
Der (place)
City in northeastern Babylonia PGP , now Tell Aqar; ancestral home of the Ištaran-šumu-ukin PGP  family of scholars.
Dickens, Charles (person)
AD 1812-70. British journalist and novelist whose writings did much to create the modern image of Christmas.
Diyala (place)
Tributary of the Tigris PGP  river, whose headwaters lie in the Zagros PGP  mountains of western Iran, flowing southwestward in order to join the Tigris below Baghdad PGP . Its Assyrian name was Turna.
Dobbs, Sir Henry Robert Conway (person)
AD 1871-1934. British imperial administrator who served as High Commissioner for Iraq, 1923-8, the most senior representative of British government under the Mandate TT .
Dur-Šarruken (place)
"Fort Sargon": city founded and built by king Sargon II PGP , which replaced Kalhu as the Assyrian king's main residence. Sennacherib PGP  moved the capital to Nineveh PGP  in the early seventh century bu Dur-Šarruken remained a provincial TT  capital. For more information see the page on Dur-Šarruken at the Assyrian Empire Builders website.

E

Ea (deity)
God of wisdom, magic, and incantations. For a general overview of this deity, see the page on Enki/Ea at the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Eanna (place)
"House of heaven" temple of the goddess Ištar PGP  in Uruk PGP .
Ea-šarru (deity)
"Ea-the-king", the great god Ea PGP  as worshipped at Kalhu.
Ebla (place)
Mid-third millennium city and kingdom in Syria, c.55 km southeast of modern Aleppo.
Egypt (place)
In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Egypt was politically fragmented, with the rulers of Kush PGP , various local dynasts in the Delta PGP  region, as well as occasional Assyrian kings, trying to claim sovereignty over the region. There was a sizeable Egyptian community in Assyria at this time.
Ekur (place)
"Mountain house", the temple of Ellil PGP  in Nippur PGP ; also a name of Aššur's temple in Assur PGP .
Elam (place)
Kingdom in southwestern Iran, centred on the city of Susa, often in conflict with Assyria.
Elijah (person)
"My god is Yahweh" (Hebrew name): Biblical prophet who features in the Old Testament Book of Kings.
Elisha (person)
"My god is salvation" (Hebrew name): Biblical prophet and follower of Elijah PGP  who features in the Old Testament Book of Kings.
Ellil (deity)
Head of the Sumerian pantheon, and still one of the most important gods in Neo-Assyrian times when he was often likened to the god Aššur PGP .
Ellipi (place)
Kingdom in the Zagros PGP  mountains of western Iran.
Eltekeh (place)
Small town at the southern end of the eastern Mediterranean coast and site of a battle in 701 BC between king Sennacherib PGP 's Assyrian army and Taharqa's PGP  Egyptian PGP  forces, at which the Assyrians claimed victory.
el-Wailly, Faisal (person)
Iraqi archaeologist and Director-General of Antiquities TT  in the mid-1960s, under whom the new Iraq Museum TT  was opened in 1966.
Esaggila (place)
"House that lifts its head", the temple of the god Marduk PGP  in Babylon PGP .
Esarhaddon (person)
Aššur-ahu-iddina, "Aššur PGP  has given a brother": king of Assyria (r.680-669 BC). Son and successor of Sennacherib PGP ; father of Assurbanipal PGP  and Šamaš-šumu-ukin PGP . See the page on Esarhaddon at the Knowledge and Power website.
Ešarra (place)
"House of the Universe", the temple of the supreme god Aššur in the city of Assu
Ešumeša (place)
Main temple of Ninurta PGP  at Nippur PGP .
Etruria (place)
Region of western Italy north of Rome, home of Etruscan culture in the 9th-6th centuries BC.
Euphrates (place)
Major river running through the western part of Mesopotamia, some 2,800 km long, which rises in the Taurus PGP  mountains and in Assyrian times flowed directly into the Persian Gulf.
Example term (place)
Here is a definition.
Ezida (place)
"True house", the temple of the god Nabu at Kalhu. See the page on Ezida. Also, and originally, the name of Nabu's temple in the Babylonian PGP  city of Borsippa PGP . Shown on BSAI's TT  plan as "Nabu Temple (Ezida)".

F

Faisal I (person)
AD 1885-1933. King of Iraq, 1921-33. The monarchy was created by the British Mandate TT  in order to lessen the appearance of direct rule while creating a state that was structurally familiar to the British establishment. Faisal was chosen as the most suitable candidate and strongly supported by Gertrude Bell PGP . He was succeeded by his only son, Ghazi (r.1933-7).
Faisal II (person)
AD 1935-1958. King of Iraq, 1939-58. Grandson of king Faisal I PGP , who came to the throne at the age of three on his father Ghazi's death in a car crash. Ghazi's brother-in-law 'Abd al-Illah ruled as regent until 1953, when Faisal turned 18. Both men were assassinated in 1958, bringing Iraq's short-lived, British-imposed monarchy to an end.
Fiorina, Paolo (person)
AD 1952-2011. Italian archaeologist, who directed excavations at Nimrud with the Centro Ricerche Archeologiche e Scavi di Torino in 1987-9.
Fletcher, Rev James Phillips (person)
British missionary TT , accompanied the Rev. George Badger PGP  to Mosul PGP  in 1842. Visited Nimrud in 1844 and dug for inscribed bricks TT  there.

G

Gabbu-ilani-ereš (person)
"All gods have desired": senior scholar of Tukulti-Ninurta II PGP  and Assurnasirpal II PGP ; ancestor of a famous family of royal scholars.
Gadd, Cyril John (person)
AD 1893-1969. Assyriologist TT  and British Museum TT  curator. Worked on joint British-US excavations at Ur PGP  under Leonard Woolley PGP  in 1923, and at Nimrud under Max Mallowan PGP  in 1952. WIth his book The Stones of Assyria (1936) he was the first to track the movements of the sculptures excavated from the Northwest Palace in the nineteenth century.
Gallulu (person)
"The boss-eyed one": steward of Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the late seventh century.
Gilzanu (place)
Small kingdom in the Zagros PGP  mountains east of Muṣaṣir PGP  and immediately south of Lake Van.
Gindibu'u (person)
"Locust" (Arabic name): leader of an Arab tribe in the Syrian desert; adversary of king Shalmaneser III PGP .
Greater Zab (place)
Tributary of the Tigris PGP  river, about 400 km long. It rises near Lake Van in modern Turkey (ancient Urartu PGP ) and joins the Tigris 10km south of Nimrud.
Gruner, Ludwig (person)
AD 1801-82. German engraver, appointed "art advisor" to British queen Victoria in 1845, who worked on some of the illustrations for Layard's PGP  books on Nimrud.
Gula (deity)
Sumerian "Great One", goddess of healing and patron of Assyrian court physicians TT . See the entry for Gula/Ninkarrak on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website for more details.
Guti (people)
An archaic term for the tribes of the Zagros PGP  mountains.

H

Hamat (place)
Former capital of the Syrian kingdom of the same name and, following its integration into Assyria under Tiglath-pileser III PGP , part of the Assyrian province TT  of Manṣuate; Biblical Hamath, modern Hama.
Hamaya (person)
Queen of Assyria, wife of king Shalmaneser IV PGP , who was buried in the Northwest Palace at Kalhu.
Hamedu (place)
District subject to the Assyrian provincial governor of Kalhu, location unknown.
Hazael (person)
Better, Haza-il, "God has seen" (West Semitic TT  name): king of Damascus PGP  (d.796 BC) who is mentioned several times in the biblical Book of Kings and features on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III PGP .
Herodotus (person)
Ancient Greek historian (c.484-425 BC) who wrote about Assyria, and other parts of the Middle East, in his famous book The Histories.
Hincks, Edward (person)
AD 1792-1866. Irish clergyman and one of the pioneer decipherers of cuneiform TT  script.
Hoe Place, Woking (place)
Country house in the southern English county of Surrey, which in the late 19th century was home to the Wainwright family, who donated Assyrian bas-reliefs to the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
Hussein, Muzahim Mahmoud (person)
Iraqi archaeologist and director of excavations at Nimrud since 1985. In 1985-7 he led a project to re-excavate and restore Nabu's temple. In 1988-91 he discovered the famous queens' tombs and their gold treasure underthe southern end of the Northwest Palace, and later worked on Ištar's temple at the north end of the acropolis.
Huzalu (person)
"Gazelle": senior administrator of the god Ištaran PGP 's temple in Der PGP , c.900 BC, and grandfather of the Kalhu scholar Ištaran-mudammiq PGP .

I

Iaua (person)
"Jahweh is he" (Hebrew name); also Yahua or Jehu, king of Israel (r.c.842-815 BC) who is mentioned several times in the biblical Book of Kings and features on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III PGP .
Imgur-Ellil (place)
Small town about 25 kilometres to the northwest of Kalhu whose main claim to fame are enormous gates with decorative bronze TT  bands commissioned by king Assurnasirpal II PGP  for the temple of the dream god Mamu PGP . These are now known as the Balawat PGP  Gates, after the modern name of the archaeological site.
Indus (place)
River that flows 2880 km southwest from pakistan to northwestern India, home to a major civilisation that dates back to the fourth millennium BC
Ionia (place)
Ancient term for mainland Greece.
Irhuleni (person)
"God is true, reliable" (Hurrian name): king of Hamat PGP  in Syria during the reign of Shalmaneser III PGP .
Ispallure (place)
Small town in northern Assyria.
Israel (place)
Ancient Israel was known to the Assyrians after its founder as Bit-Humri, "House of Omri". For more information see the page on Israel at the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Ištar (deity)
Goddess of war, love and beauty, worshipped at Kalhu as Ištar šarrat niphi, "Ištar, Blazing Queen" and Ištar bēlet kidmūri "Ištar, Mistress of the Kidmuru". For a general overview of this deity, see the page on Inana/Ištar at the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Ištaran (deity)
Babylonian PGP  god worshipped especially at Der PGP . For more information see the page on Ištaran on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Ištaran-mudammiq (person)
"Ištaran PGP  is the one who gives fortune": king Assurnasirpal II PGP 's senior exorcist TT  and a member of the Ištaran-šumu-ukin family of scholars TT .
Ištaran-šumu-ukin (person)
"Ištaran PGP  has firmly established the name": Babylonian ancestor of an eminent family of Assyrian royal scholars TT  of the ninth to early eighth centuries BC.
Ištar-šumu-ereš (person)
"Ištar PGP  has desired a name": Assurbanipal PGP 's senior scholar; an important figure in the inner circle of both Esarhaddon PGP  and especially Assurbanipal, he was a member of the prominent Assyrian scribal family descended from Gabbu-ilani-ereš PGP .

J

Jalili, Ahmed Pasha (person)
Governor of the Ottoman TT  province TT  of Mosul PGP , 1809 and 1812-1818. The Jalili family had had a virtual monopoly on this position since the early eighteenth century.
James, M.R. (person)
AD 1862-1936. Academic and author, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambrige, 1893-1908 and later Provost of Eton College TT . Most famous as a writer of ghost stories.
Jones, Felix (person)
AD 1813-1878. Officer in the East India Company TT 's navy. He led several map-making surveys of Mesopotamia in the 1840s, looking for viable river routes to India, during which he discovered and mapped many important archaeolocial sites. He served as the EIC's Resident TT  in Baghdad PGP , later political agent to the British government, 1854-64.

K

Kaizu (place)
Phoenician PGP  settlement on the eastern Mediterrean coast between Arwad PGP  in the north and Sidon PGP  in the south; exact location unknown.
Kalbu (person)
"Dog(sbody)/Servant": senior scholar of king Sennacherib PGP , who fell out of favour through trying to deceive the king with falsely positive omens TT .
Khorsabad (place)
Archaeological site of the ancient Assyrian city Dur-Šarruken PGP .
Kidmuru (deities)
One aspect of the goddess Ištar PGP  as worshipped at Kalhu is bēlet kidmūri, "Mistress of the divine Kidmuru". The name Kidmuru does not occur in any other context so it is difficult to determine exactly what it means; it is possible that it is a collective name for a group of gods.
King, Leonard (person)
AD 1869-19. British Assyriologist TT  at the British Museum TT  whose work on the royal inscriptions from Nimrud (amongst many other works) proved an invaluable resource for understanding Assyrian history.
Kish (place)
Northern Babylonian PGP  city, modern Tell Ingharra, excavated by a joint Oxford-Chicago team under the Mandate TT 
Koldewey, Robert (person)
AD 1855-1925. German architect and archaeologist. Led excavations at Babylon PGP  in 1899, using new stratigraphic TT  techniques to study mud-brick structures.
Kullania (place)
Assyrian province TT  situated between the northern stretches of the Orontes PGP  river and the Mediterranean coast. The capital city of the same name is at the modern archaeological site of Tell Tayinat PGP .
Kush (place)
Nubia, a kingdom to the south of Egypt PGP  in modern Sudan. See the page on Kush at the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Kuyunjik (place)
Modern name of the archaeological site that is the citadel TT  of Nineveh PGP ; also spelled Koujunjik.

L

La-dagil-ili (person)
"The one who does not see the god": Prophet TT  from Arbela PGP , communicating the words of Ištar PGP  to king Esarhaddon PGP .
Layard, Austen Henry (person)
AD 1817-94. English adventurer and later politician and diplomat who as a young man discovered the ruins of Nimrud and Nineveh PGP . His explorations and excavations there in the 1840s made ancient Assyria (and himself) famous worldwide.
Lebanon (place)
Mountain range near the east coast of the Mediterranean, famous for its cedar TT  forests.
Levant (place)
The lands of the eastern Mediterranean, roughly equivalent to modern-day Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan.
Lloyd, Seton (person)
AD 1902-96. British archaeologist who served as advisor to Iraq's Directorate-General of Antiquities TT , 1939-48.
Loftus, William Kennett (person)
AD 1821-58. British traveller who explored many Mesopotamian sites, including Nimrud, Ur PGP , and Uruk PGP , between 1849 and 1855, bringing back ancient objects for the British Museum TT  and publishing a volume of cuneiform TT  texts.
Lul[...] (person)
Slave given to Nabu's temple in Kalhu by Nabu-sakip PGP  in the late seventh century BC.

M

Mahallatu (place)
Phoenician PGP  settlement on the eastern Mediterrean coast between Arwad PGP  in the north and Sidon PGP  in the south; exact location unknown.
Maizu (place)
Phoenician PGP  settlement on the eastern Mediterrean coast between Arwad PGP  in the north and Sidon PGP  in the south; exact location unknown.
Malan, Rev Solomon (person)
AD 1812-94. Swiss-British scholar of the Bible and Asian languages who travelled widely in India and the Middle East. Layard PGP 's book Discoveries in Nineveh and Babylon (1853) includes sketches by Malan of the 1850 season TT  at Nimrud.
Mallowan, Max (person)
AD 1904-78. British archaeologist who directed the British School of Archaeology in Iraq TT , 1947-59 and led its expedition to Nimrud; married first to Agatha Christie PGP  and then to the Assyriologist TT  Barbara Parker PGP .
Mamu (deity)
Dream god with a temple at Imgur-Ellil PGP , for which king Assurnasirpal II PGP  commissioned the magnificent Balawat PGP  Gates.
March, Werner (person)
AD 1894-1976. German architect of the Iraq Museum, opened in 1966; more famous for the design of the Berlin Olympic Stadium opened for the infamous Olympic Games of 1936.
Marduk (deity)
Supreme god of Babylon PGP , where he was worshipped at the temple Esaggila PGP ; father of the god Nabu PGP .
Marduk-[...] (person)
Royal scribe and senior scholar of king Adad-nerari III PGP ; son of Babilayu PGP , descendant of Ištaran-šumu-ukin PGP .
Marduk-apla-uṣur (person)
"O Marduk PGP , protect the heir!": Ruler of the small kingdom Suhu PGP  during the reign of Shalmaneser III PGP .
Marduk-bel-usati (person)
"Marduk is the lord of help": rebellious brother of the Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-šumi PGP .
Marduk-šakin-šumi (person)
"Marduk PGP  is the establisher of the name": king Assurbanipal PGP 's chief exorcist TT ; successor of Adad-šumu-uṣur PGP , with whom he worked closely in the earlier stage of his career.
Marduk-šarru-uṣur (person)
"O Marduk PGP  protect the king!": Priest of Nabu's temple in late 7th-century Kalhu.
Marduk-zakir-šumi (person)
"Marduk PGP  has named an heir": king of Babylon PGP , ally of Shalmaneser III PGP  and Šamši-Adad V PGP .
Maxwell-Hyslop, Rachel (person)
née Rachel Clay, AD 1914-2011. British archaeologist and key member of the BSAI's TT  team at Nimrud in the 1950s.
Media (place)
A region in the Zagros PGP  mountains of western Iran. For more detail, see the page about the Medes on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Meluhhaya (person)
"Man from Meluhha": senior scholar of king Shalmaneser III PGP .
Meuszyński, Janusz (person)
AD 1946-76. Polish archaeologist, director of the project to excavate the Central Palace PGP  at Nimrud, 1974-6.
Millar, Harold Robert (person)
AD 1869-1940. Scottish graphic artist best known for his book illustrations, including many works by E. Nesbit PGP .
Mosul (place)
Northern Iraqi city in on the opposite bank of the Tigris PGP  to Nineveh PGP ; provincial TT  capital of the Ottoman TT  empire and now the main base for Iraqi archaeologists and historians of Nimrud.
Mullissu (deity)
The divine consort of the supreme god Aššur PGP ; see the page about Ninlil/Mullissu on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website for more details.
Mullissu-mukannišat-Ninua (person)
"Mullissu PGP  is the one who unites Nineveh PGP ": queen of Assyria, wife of Assurnasirpal II PGP  and mother of Shalmaneser III; she may have been buried in the Northwest Palace at Kalhu.
Munn-Rankin, Margaret (person)
AD 1913-81. British archaeologist; Lecturer in Oriental History and Archaeology at the University of Cambridge, 1949-81.
Muṣaṣir (place)
Small independent state in the Zagros region, a former ally of king Sargon II PGP  and captured by him in 712 BC; a religious centre of great influence from at least the early second millennium BC and one of the most important temples for the rulers of Urartu PGP . Archaeological site of Mudjesir near Rowanduz.
Muṣri (place)
"Borderland", probably a country far to the east of Assyria during the reign of Shalmaneser III PGP ; or perhaps Egypt PGP  (which was usually called Muṣur by the Assyrians).

N

Nabu (deity)
God of wisdom and patron of scribes TT  and scholars TT , son of the great Babylonian deity Marduk PGP  with a large temple in Kalhu. For more detail see the page on Nabu.
Nabu-ahhe-eriba (person)
"Nabu PGP  has replaced the brothers": steward of Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the late seventh century BC.
Nabu-ahu-iddina (person)
"Nabu PGP  has given a brother": (chief) firewood supplier of Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the late seventh century BC.
Nabu-aplu-iddina (person)
"Nabu PGP  has given an heir": one of the senior scholars of king Sennacherib PGP  in around 700 BC.
Nabu-eriba (person)
"Nabu PGP  has replaced": lamentation priest TT  of Ninurta's temple in Kalhu, accused of theft by a colleague.
Nabu-hamatua (person)
"Nabu PGP  is my rescue":
Nabu-kibsi-uṣur (person)
"O Nabu PGP , protect my steps!"
Nabu-kudurri-uṣur (person)
"O Nabu PGP , protect my heir!": presumably a member of the cultic staff at Nabu's temple in Kalhu, as he reported to the king on a ritual for Tašmetu PGP .
Nabu-leʾi (person)
"Nabu PGP  is almighty": scribe of a scholarly tablet found in Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu; son of the royal lamenter TT  Urad-Ea PGP .
Nabu-mudammiq (person)
"Nabu PGP  is the one who gives fortune": royal exorcist TT , descendant of Ištaran-šumu-ukin PGP  and son of Ištaran-mudammiq PGP ; copyist or owner of one of the scholarly tablets found in Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu.
Nabu-nadin-šumi (person)
"Nabu PGP  is the giver of the name": royal exorcist TT  in Kalhu and Nineveh PGP  during the reign of Esarhaddon PGP .
Nabu-naʾid (person)
"Nabu PGP  is exalted: one of the domestic staff in Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu, exact title unknown.
Nabu-sakip (person)
Better, Nabu-sagib "Nabu PGP  is exalted": donor of two slaves to Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu in the mid-seventh century BC.
Nabu-šallim-ahhe (person)
"O Nabu PGP , keep the brothers safe!": scribe who dedicated a mace-head to Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu.
Nabu-šallimšunu (person)
"O Nabu PGP , keep them safe!": king Sargon II's PGP  chief scribe and senior scholar, author of the famous Letter to Aššur.
Nabu-šumu-ibni (person)
"Nabu PGP  has created the name": physician TT  in Kalhu in the early eighth century BC.
Nabu-šumu-iddina (person)
"Nabu PGP  has given a name"; also known as Nadinu, "Giver": "mayor" of Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu in the early seventh century BC; also monitors horses arriving at Fort Shalmaneser, sending regular reports to the king.
Nabu-šumu-uṣur (person)
"O Nabu PGP , protect the name!": chief priest of Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu in the late seventh century.
Nabu-zeru-lešir (person)
"O Nabu PGP , let the seed prosper!": king Esarhaddon's PGP  chief scribe; member of the eminent Gabbu-ilani-ereš PGP  family of scholars.
Nabu-zuqup-kenu (person)
"O Nabu PGP , keep the true one upright!": member of the eminent Gabbu-ilani-ereš PGP  family of scholars in Kalhu during the reigns of Sargon PGP  and Sennacherib PGP .
Nahr el-Kalb (place)
River in modern-day Lebanon which runs for 30km into the Mediterranean sea. Rulers, ancient and modern, have traditionally erected monuments at its mouth.
Nanaya (deity)
A name of Ištar PGP  in her aspect as goddess of love
Nani (person)
(meaning unknown): steward of Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the late seventh century BC.
Naqiʾa (person)
"The pure one" (Aramaic name), also called Zakutu, which is the same name in Akkadian: Queen TT  of Assyria, wife of Sennacherib PGP  and mother of Esarhaddon PGP . As queen mother TT  she was particularly influential.
Nebi Yunus (place)
Arabic "Prophet Jonah", a mound just south of Kuyunjik PGP  in Nineveh PGP , where the Old Testament prophet is said to be buried. See the page on the Knowledge and Power website for more details.
Nergal (deity)
God of destructive force and animal instincts; lord of the Underworld. For more information see the page about Nergal on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses site.
Nergal-ilaʾi (person)
"Nergal PGP  is my god": Adad-nerari III's PGP  commander-in-chief, who dedicated a large inscribed weight-stone to the goddess Tašmetu PGP  in Kalhu.
Nergal-šarrani (person)
"Nergal PGP  is our king": chief priest of Nabu's temple PGP  in Kalhu in the early seventh century.
Nesbit, Edith (person)
AD 1858-1924. British author, remembered especially for her children's books. Her The Story of the Amulet features a visit to ancient Babylon and an encounter with Nisroch PGP .
Nimrod (deity)
Biblical name of the god Ninurta PGP  and the origin of the modern site name Nimrud.
Nineveh (place)
Assyrian province TT  and its capital city of the same name, on the banks of the river Tigris PGP , opposite the modern-day city of Mosul PGP  in northern Iraq. One of the most important cities of northern Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC, it was the main residence of the Assyrian kings from the reign of Sennacherib PGP  onwards. For more information, see the page about Nineveh on the Knowledge and Power website.
Ninlil (deity)
Spouse of the god Ellil PGP , Babylonian counterpart of the Assyrian goddess Mullissu PGP . For more information, see the page about Ninlil on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Ninurta (deity)
God of victory, originally worshipped in Nippur PGP . King Assurnasirpal PGP  erected a fine temple for Ninurta in Kalhu. For more information, see the page about Ninurta.
Nippur (place)
City in central Babylonia PGP , near modern Nuffar.
Nisaba (deity)
Alternatively, Nissaba or Nidaba, goddess of grain and writing. See her page on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Nisroch (deity)
Originally a Biblical corruption of Nimrod PGP , in the 19th century this name became attached to the winged genie TT  sculptures from the Northwest Palace.
Nubia (place)
Another name for Kush PGP .
Nudimmud (deity)
Another name for the god Ea PGP .
Nusku (deity)
God of light and hope, son of the moongod Sin PGP . For more information see the Nuska/Nusku on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.

O

Oates, David (person)
AD 1927-2004. British archaeologist, Director of BSAI TT  excavations at Nimrud in 1958-62, focusing on Fort Shalmaneser. Married to archaeologist Joan Oates (née Lines).
Old Palace (place)
Large palace in Assur PGP , built in the early second millennium BC, where later the kings of Assyria were buried.
Omri (person)
"The Lord is my life" (Hebrew name): king of Israel PGP  in the ninth century BC and founder of a dynasty known to the Assyrians as "the house of Omri".
Orchard, Jeffrey (person)
British archaeologist, David Oates' PGP  successor as Director of BSAI TT  excavations at Nimrud, 1963.
Orontes (place)
Major river in the Levant, running from the springs in the Beqaa Valley between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon to the north through Syria into Turkey.

P

Paley, Samuel (person)
AD 1941-2010. American archaeologist who specialised in the virtual reconstruction of the Northwest Palace at Nimrud.
Palhu-ušezib (person)
"He has saved the god-fearing": Slave given to Nabu's temple in Kalhu by Nabu-sakip PGP  in the late seventh century BC.
Pan-Aššur-lamur (person)
"May I see Aššur's PGP  face!": eunuch TT  of Sargon II PGP .
Papsukkal (deity)
Minor god, often seen as the minister of Anu PGP . See his page on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website
Parker, Barbara (person)
Lady Mallowan, AD 1908-93. British archaeologist and Assyriologist TT . Founding member of theBritish School of Archaeology in Iraq TT  and epigrapher for its Nimrud excavations; lecturer in Mesopotamian archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology TT  in London. Married Max Mallowan PGP  after Agatha Christie PGP 's death in 1977.
Patina (place)
Region in southern Turkey, on the east Mediterranean coast; ruled by king Qarparunda PGP  at the time of Shalmaneser III PGP  in the mid-9th century BC.
Phillips, Henry Wyndham (person)
AD 1820-68. British painter known particularly for his portraits (including one of Layard PGP ) and for his Biblical scenes.
Phoenicia (place)
A group of city-states along the north of the east Mediterranean coast, including Sidon PGP  and Tyre PGP . For more details, see the page about the Phoenicians on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Pulu (person)
"Corner-stone": Lamenter TT  of Nabu's temple in Kalhu during the reigns of Esarhaddon PGP  and Assurbanipal PGP .

Q

Qalaat Sherqat (place)
Modern name of the archaeological site of Assur PGP . Men from the local Sherqati tribe are renowned as expert excavators and are employed on digs across Iraq and Syria.
Qarparunda (person)
Ruler of Patina PGP  on the southeast coast of Turkey, who paid tribute to king Shalmaneser III PGP .
Qarqar (place)
Royal city of Irhuleni PGP , king of Hamat PGP , on the Orontes PGP  river.
Que (place)
Assyrian province TT  and its capital of the same name, encompassing the southeastern corner of the Turkish coast around the modern city of Adana (classical Cilicia).

R

Ramataya of Urakazabanu (person)
Ruler of a small kingdom in Media PGP  who swore to uphold king Esarhaddon's succession treaty in the early 7th century BC.
Ramesses II (person)
Egyptian PGP  pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, 13th century BC, who expanded Egypt's territorial control far into the Levant as well as into Kush PGP  and modern-day Libya.
Rassam, Hormuzd (person)
AD 1826-1910. Mosul PGP -born archaeologist, who worked first with Layard PGP  and then independently for the British Museum TT  at Nimrud and other Mesopotamian archaeological sites.
Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke (person)
AD 1810-95. British employee of the East India Company TT , posted to Baghdad PGP  in 1845 as its senior official there. Did much to support Layard PGP 's work at Nimrud and was actively involved in the first decipherments of cuneiform TT  script.
Reynolds Jr, Samuel Williams (person)
AD 1794-1872. British portrait painter and expert on mezzotint TT  engraving.
Rich, Claudius James (person)
AD 1786/7-1821. British employee of the East India Company TT , posted to Baghdad PGP  in 1808 as its resident TT  there. His antiquarian TT  interests led him to write two books on the ruins of Babylon PGP  and a long account of travel in Kurdistan and the area around Nimrud. The British Museum TT  bought some of his collection of Mesopotamian and other antiquities after his death.
Rogers, Rev Robert William (person)
AD 1864-1930. American Assyriologist TT  who wrote an influential book on the history of Babylonia and Assyria published in 1900.

S

Sachs, Abraham (person)
AD 1915-83. American Assyriologist TT , mostly known for his work on Babylonian mathematics and astronomy, who pieced together some of Esarhaddon PGP 's succession treaties in the British Museum TT .
Sam'al (place)
Assyrian province TT  and its centre of the same name; now Zincirli in modern Turkey.
Sammu-ramat (person)
"The god Sammu is exalted/beloved" (West Semitic name): late ninth-century queen TT  of Assyria, wife of Šamši-Adad V PGP  and mother of Adad-nerari III PGP . A powerful woman in her own right, on whom the legendary figure of Semiramis PGP  was later based.
Samuti (person)
(meaning unknown): royal diviner TT  in the reign of Adad-nerari III PGP  who witnessed a legal document.
Sardanapalus (person)
Legendarily decadent last king of Assyria, in classical Greek and later traditions, perhaps an amalgam of Assurbanipal PGP  and his brother Šamaš-šumu-ukin PGP .
Sargon II (person)
Šarru-kenu, "The king is true": king of Assyria (r.721-705 BC) who ascended to the throne in suspicious circumstances following the death of his (half-)brother, Shalmaneser V PGP , and who died in battle in Anatolia PGP ; eponym official TT  of the year 719 BC. See the page about Sargon on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Semiramis (person)
Legendarily impressive queen TT  of Assyria, in classical Greek and later traditions, most likely based on Sammu-ramat PGP .
Sennacherib (person)
Sin-ahhe-eriba, "Sin has replaced the brothers": king of Assyria (r. 704-681 BC); son of Sargon II PGP  and father of Esarhaddon PGP . See the page about Sennacherib on the Knowledge and Power website.
Sevan (place)
Large lake of some 940 km2, high in the mountains of central eastern Armenia PGP .
Shabako (person)
(meaning unknown, Kushite name): pharaoh of Kush PGP  (r.721-706 BC), contemporary and sometime enemy of Sargon II PGP .
Shalmaneser III (person)
Salmanu-ašared, "The god Salmanu is foremost": king of Assyria, who ruled from Kalhu (r.858-824 BC); son of king Assurnasirpal II PGP  and father of king Šamši-Adad V PGP . See the page about Shalmaneser III.
Shalmaneser IV (person)
Salmanu-ašared, "The god Salmanu is foremost": king of Assyria (r.782-773 BC), who ruled from Kalhu.
Shalmaneser V (person)
Salmanu-ašared, "The god Salmanu is the foremost": king of Assyria (r.726-722 BC), crown prince TT  of Assyria (as Ululaya) under his father Tiglath-pileser III PGP ; (half-)brother of Sargon II PGP , his successor; eponym official TT  of the year 723 BC. See the page about Shalmaneser V on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Sherif Khan (place)
Modern name of the archaological site of ancient Tarbiṣu PGP , 5 km northwest of Nineveh PGP .
Sibitti (deities)
"Seven", a group of seven gods equated with the constellation Pleiades, who had a temple dedicated to them in Kalhu.
Sidon (place)
An Assyrian provincial capital TT  on the eastern Mediterranean coast; Assyrian Ṣidunu, now Saida in modern Lebanon.
Sin (deity)
The moon-god; the moon. See the page about Nanna/Suen/Sin on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Sin-šarru-iškun (person)
"Sin PGP  has established the king": king of Assyria (r. 624-612 BC) under whom the Medes PGP  and Babylonians PGP  attacked and captured much of the heartland of empire and preciptated its final collapse.
Sirgana (place)
District subject to the Assyrian provincial governor of Kalhu, location unknown.
Smith, George (person)
AD 1840-73, British Assyriologist TT , employed by the British Museum, who deciphered many of the Assyrian cuneiform tablets found at Nimrud and Kuyunjik PGP , most famously the so-called "Flood tablet" of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Sobolewski, Richard (person)
Polish architect on Meuszyński's PGP  archaeological expedition to Nimrud in the 1970s who later worked with Sam Paley PGP  on the virtual reconstruction of the Northwest Palace.
Southwest Palace (place)
Palace built by king Sennacherib on the royal citadel TT  at Nineveh PGP  in the early seventh century. Shown on BSAI's TT  plan as "S W Palace".
Sua the Gilzanean (person)
Ruler of the tribal lands of Gilzanu in northwest Iran, a vassal TT  state of Assyria in the ninth and eighth centuries BC.
Suez Canal (place)
Artificial waterway in modern Egypt, which opened in 1869. By connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea some 200km to the south, it allowed shipping to travel directly between Europe and the Middle East (and India) without having to travel all around Africa.
Suhu (place)
Territory on the middle Euphrates PGP  river, originally a small independent kingdom and later absorbed into the Assyrian province TT  of Hindanu.
Sumer (place)
Southern Babylonia PGP  where Sumerian was the main written language, especially in the third millennium BC.

Ṣil-Aššur (person)
"Shade (protection) of Aššur PGP ": despite his Assyrian name, this man identifies himself as an Egyptian PGP  scribe TT  when he buys a house in Nineveh PGP .

Š

Šala (deity)
Goddess, spouse of the god Adad PGP , who shared a temple in Kalhu; see the page about Šala on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Šamaš (deity)
The sun-god; god of justice; the sun. See the page about Utu/Šamaš on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Šamaš-šumu-ukin (person)
"Šamaš has established the name": Assyrian prince, later king of Babylon PGP  (r. 668-648 BC); son of Esarhaddon PGP  and brother of Assurbanipal PGP , who in 652 contested his rule over Babylonia and, after a bloody war, finally wrestled power from him in 648. Thought to have died by suicide when Babylon was taken by Assyrian troops.
Šamši-Adad I (person)
"My sun is Adad": king of the Old Assyrian TT  period who conquered the city of Assur PGP  (r.c.1808-1773) and made it the capital of a large upper Mesopotamian kingdom.
Šamši-Adad V (person)
"My sun is Adad": king of Assyria (r.823-811), son and successor of Shalmaneser III PGP ; father of Adad-nerari III PGP .
Šarrat-niphi (deity)
"Blazing queen": aspect of the great goddess Ištar PGP  as worshipped in her temple at Kalhu.
Šubria (place)
Kingdom near the source of the Tigris river PGP  in modern Turkey; integrated into Assyria in 673 BC in the form of two provinces TT . For more detail, see the page about Šubria on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Šumaya (person)
Abbreviation of a name containing the element "name": exorcist TT  and son of Nabu-zeru-lešir PGP , Esarhaddon's PGP  chief scribe; following the death of his father he petitions crown prince TT  Assurbanipal PGP  to give him a position at Kalhu so that he may succeed his father and grandfather in royal service.
Šuruppag (place)
Third-millennium city in southern Mesopotamia; the modern archaeological site of Fara.
Šusanqu (person)
(meaning unknown, the Assyrian version of the Libyan name Shoshenq): a relative by marriage of king Sennacherib, as discussed on the page about Egyptian heiroglyphs.

T

Taharqa (person)
Assyrian version of the Egyptian name Tarqu (meaning unknown): pharaoh of Kush (r.690-664 BC) and enemy of kings Sennacherib PGP  and Esarhaddon PGP .
Talbot, William Henry Fox (person)
AD 1800-77. British inventor of photographic techniques, antiquarian TT , and amateur Assyriologist TT , especially in later life.
Tappuya (person)
"My partner": temple administrator from the northern Babylonian PGP  city of Der PGP , father of king Assurnasirpal II's PGP  senior exorcist TT  Ištaran-mudammiq PGP .
Tarbiṣu (place)
Assyrian city, 5 km northwest of Nineveh PGP ; residence of the crown prince TT  in the seventh century BC; modern Sherif Khan PGP .
Tašmetu (deity)
Goddess, spouse of the god Nabu PGP ; for more information see the page about Tašmetu on the Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses website.
Taurus (place)
Major mountain range in southeastern Turkey.
Tell Tayinat (place)
Archaeological site of ancient Kullania PGP  which in recent years has yielded important information about the easternmost parts of the Assyrian empire.
Temenu (place)
District under the control of the provincial governor of Kalhu, location unknown.
Thompson, Reginald Campbell (person)
1876-1941. British Assyriologist TT  and archeologist who led British Museum TT  excavations at Nineveh PGP , 1927-32, with the assistance of Max Mallowan PGP .
Tiamat (deity)
The chaotic sea, defeated by Marduk PGP  who constructs the world from her body in The Epic of Creation TT .
Tiglath-pileser I (person)
Tukulti-apil-Ešarra, "My trust is (in) the heir of Ešarra" PGP : king of Assyria (r. 1114-1076 BC).
Tiglath-pileser III (person)
Tukulti-apil-Ešarra, "My trust is (in) the heir of Ešarra" PGP : king of Assyria (r.744-727 BC), who significantly expanded the empire. See the page about Tiglath-pileser III on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Tigris (place)
Major river that runs through eastern Mesopotamia, on which the major cities of Assyria were situated. It is some 1800 km long, rising in the eastern Taurus PGP  mountains and flowing south, where it emptied directly into the Persian Gulf in Assyrian times.
Tigris Grotto (place)
Modern name for an outdoor shrine on the Tigris PGP  in Šubria PGP , featuring three mountain caves around a spring.
Til-Barsip (place)
Capital city of Bit-Adini PGP  and later an Assyrian provincial capital TT .
Town Wall Houses (place)
Area on the northeast of Nimrud citadel TT , where archaeologists found the remains of domestic houses in 1953. Shown on BSAI's TT  plan as "Houses T W 53".
Tukulti-Ninurta I (person)
"My trust is (in) Ninurta": king of Assyria (r.1243-1207 BC).
Tukulti-Ninurta II (person)
"My trust is (in) Ninurta": king of Assyria (r. 890-884 BC).
Turner, Geoffrey (person)
British archaeologist and historian of Assyriology TT .
Tyre (place)
Phoenician PGP  city-state, situated on an island off the eastern Mediterranean coast; Assyrian Ṣurru, modern Ṣur in Lebanon.

U

Ur (place)
City in southern Babylonia PGP ; now Tell Muqayyar.
Urad-Ea (person)
"Servant of Ea PGP ": Lamenter TT  in the service of Esarhaddon PGP , with the official title "lamenter of Sin PGP  and the king"; a member of a famous family of Assyrian lamenters.
Urad-Gula (person)
"Servant of Gula PGP ": Exorcist TT  in the service of Esarhaddon PGP  and Assurbanipal PGP ; a member of a prominent Gabbu-ilani-ereš PGP  family, he was the son of Adad-šumu-uṣur PGP .
Urad-Ištar (person)
"Servant of Ištar": šangû-priest at Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the mid-to-late seventh century.
Urad-Nabu (person)
"Servant of Nabu": http://oracc.org/saao/saa12/P33673 priest at Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the mid-seventh century; ; [2] slave dedicated by his uncle to Nabu's temple in 655 BC.
Urartu (place)
A kingdom to the north of Assyria between Lake Van PGP , Lake Sevan PGP  and Lake Urmia PGP , with capital Tušpa (or Turushpa), modern Van; Biblical Ararat, Armenia. For more detail, see the page about Urartu on the Assyrian Empire Builders website.
Urdu (person)
"Servant": cook at Nabu's temple in Kalhu in the mid-to-late seventh century BC.
Urkittu-šarrat (person)
"The Urukean (goddess) is queen": Prophetess TT  from Kalhu, communicating the words of Ištar PGP  of Arbela PGP  and Mullissu PGP  to king Esarhaddon PGP .
Urmia (place)
Lake in what is now northwestern Iran, on the edge of ancient Urartu PGP .
Uruk (place)
City in southern Babylonia PGP ; Biblical Erech, now Warka.
Uš-Anahuru (person)
"He belongs to the god Onuris" (Egyptian name): crown prince TT  of the Kushite pharaoh Taharqa PGP  during the reign of Esarhaddon PGP .

V

Van (place)
Lake in what is now eastern Turkey, on the edge of ancient Urartu PGP .

W

Weber, Julius (person)
AD 1838-1906. Swiss businessman and antiquarian, lived in Baghdad PGP  from 1860-68 while working for an export company. Excavated bas-reliefs TT  at Nimrud from 1860-63 and sent them to Zurich.
Wellesley, Henry (person)
1st Earl Cowley, AD 1804-1884. British diplomat; secretary and deputy of Sir Stratford Canning PGP  in Constantinople PGP  in the 1840s; later British ambassador to France, 1852-67.
Wiseman, Donald (person)
AD 1918-2010. British Assyriologist TT  who worked on the British School of Archaeology in Iraq's TT  excavations at Nimrud in the 1950s and published many of the cuneiform TT  inscriptions found there.
Woolley, Leonard (person)
AD 1880-1960. British archaeologist, who led joint US-British excavations at the city of Ur PGP  in southern Mesopotamia from 1922-34. Employed the young Max Mallowan PGP  on the dig at Ur.

X

Xenophon (person)
Ancient Greek historian, active on the early fourth century BC, who wrote about the recent Greek wars with Achaemenid TT  Persia and thus also about earlier Middle Eastern history.

Y

Yabaʾ (person)
(meaning unknown, West Semitic name): queen TT  of Assyria and wife of king Tiglath-pileser III PGP , who was buried under the Northwest Palace at Kalhu.
Yaluna (place)
District under the control of the provincial governor of Kalhu, location unknown.

Z

Zagros (place)
Major mountain range running some 1,500 km from northeastern Iraq to the Persian Gulf; home to many tribes and kingdoms in Assyrian times.
Zamua (place)
Assyrian province on the northwestern slopes of the Zagros PGP  mountain range and its capital city of the same name; modern Sulaimaniya; also known as Mazamua.

Content last modified: 31 Dec 2015.

 
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