The Oracc Project List

Idrimi: Statue of Idrimi

The statue of Idrimi in the British Museum (detail)

An up-to-date, searchable edition of the Idrimi inscription together with numerous annotations and bibliography. By Jacob Lauinger at Johns Hopkins University.

AMGG: Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses

Detail of Old Babylonian clay plaque, known as the Burney Relief or the "Queen of the Night" showing a naked goddess, perhaps Inana or Ereškigal. © The British Museum.

Offers information about the fifty most important Mesopotamian gods and goddesses and provides starting points for further research.
Directed by Nicole Brisch and funded by the UK Higher Education Academy, 2011.

blms: Bilinguals in Late Mesopotamian Scholarship

Long after Sumerian had died out as a spoken language, bilingual (Sumerian - Akkadian) texts still played a prominent role in the scholarly culture of Babylonia and Assyria. BLMS provides editions of bilingual narrative texts, hymns, proverbs, prayers, rituals, and incantations dating to the first millennium BCE.
Project Director: Steve Tinney; Editor: Jeremiah Peterson. With the assistance of Niek Veldhuis, Jamie Novotny, Joshua Jeffers, and Ilona Zsolnay. BLMS is supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

CAMS: Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship

Three clay figurines of protective apkallu-sages dressed in fish-cloaks, from 7th-century Nineveh (BM ME 91837)

Editions and translations of a wide range of Mesopotamian scholarly writings, contributed by many different people and projects.

CAMS/Anzu

Front cover of State Archives of Assyria, vol. 3

Composite transliterations of the Epic of Anzu, prepared by Amar Annus for the book The Standard Babylonian Epic of Anzu (State Archives of Assyria, Cuneiform Texts 3), Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2001. Lemmatisation by Philip Jones.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

CAMS/Barutu

The obverse of the Old Babylonian liver model BM 92668.

Texts on extispicy (divination by the entrails of sacrificed animals). Currently contains only the Old Babylonian liver model BM 92668. The ordering of the omens was determined by Ruth Horry, the transliteration and translation made by Eleanor Robson.

CAMS/Etana: The Standard Babylonian Epic of Etana

Provides fully searchable manuscript transliterations of the Old Babylonian, Middle Assyrian and Neo-Assyrian versions of the Etana epic, prepared by Jamie Novotny for the book The Standard Babylonian Etana Epic (State Archives of Assyria, Cuneiform Texts 2), Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2001.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns

CAMS/GKAB: CAMS Geography of Knowledge Corpus

Drawing of a detail from a tablet describing how to make a ritual kettle drum from a bull's hide, Uruk c.200 BC (TCL 6, 47)

Editions of scholarly tablets from Huzirina, Kalhu, and Uruk for the Geography of Knowledge project, comprising editions and translations of a wide range of Mesopotamian scholarly writings.
Project directed by Eleanor Robson at the University of Cambridge and funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council, 2007-12.

CAMS/Ludlul

Front cover of State Archives of Assyria, vol. 7

Score and manuscript transliterations of Ludlul bēl nēmeqi, prepared by Amar Annus and Alan Lenzi for the book Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi: The Standard Babylonian Poem of the Righteous Sufferer(State Archives of Assyria, Cuneiform Texts 7), Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2010.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

CAMS/SelBI: CAMS/Seleucid Building Inscriptions

Close-up of lapis-coloured glazed bricks in the remains of the Irigal temple in Uruk, 2001. Photo by Eleanor Robson.

Third-century BC building inscriptions, from Borsippa and Uruk. Edition of the Antiochus (Borsippa) Cylinder by Kathryn Stevens; edition of the Anu-uballiṭs' inscriptions from Uruk by Eleanor Robson.

CCPo: Cuneiform Commentaries Project on ORACC

Provides fully searchable, annotated editions of text commentaries written by Assyrian and Babylonian scholars between the eighth and second centuries BCE. The texts commented on include literary, magical, divinatory, medical, legal, and lexical works.
Project Director: Eckart Frahm; Senior Editor: Enrique Jiménez.

CDLI: The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative

CDLI image of Proto-Cuneiform tablet from Uruk, W20367

The foundational online cataloging and archiving project for the cuneiform corpus, directed by Bob Englund at UCLA. The Oracc presentation is based directly on public CDLI data which is updated nightly.

CKST: Corpus of Kassite Sumerian Texts

Votive eye dedicated by the Kassite king Kurigalzu to the god Zababa. (Louvre, AO 23994)

Editions of Sumerian Kassite texts: Royal Inscriptions, Literary, and Lexical texts.

CMAwRo: Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-witchcraft Rituals

Head of an Assyrian woman (© Trustees of the British Museum)

CMAwRo presents online critical editions of Mesopotamian rituals and incantations against witchcraft. The text editions and translations are derived from the Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-witchcraft Rituals (CMAwR; vol. 1, Brill: 2011).
The DFG-funded research project "Corpus babylonischer Rituale und Beschwörungen gegen Schadenzauber: Edition, lexikalische Erschließung, historische und literarische Analyse" is directed by Daniel Schwemer (University of Würzburg).

Contrib: Contributions

Data contributed to Oracc for reuse by others, normally under the CC BY-SA license.

Amarna: The Amarna Texts

Shrine-stela of Amenhotep III and queen Tiye (detail), Amarna c.1340 BC. (British Museum EA 57399)

Contributed by Shlomo Izre'el, the Amarna corpus comprises transliterations of the 380 cuneiform tablets found at Tell el-Amarna (ancient Akhetaten) in Egypt. It contains diplomatic correspondence and Akkadian scholarly works from the mid-14th century BC.

contrib/lambert: The Notebooks of W.G. Lambert

Image of part of Lambert Folio 9034, the first page of Notebook 2

W. G. Lambert (1926-2011) was an Assyriologist who spent much of his research time transliterating and copying cuneiform tablets in museums, especially the British Museum. His Nachlass included eight notebooks filled with handwritten transliterations of Babylonian and Assyrian texts. The notebooks contain more than five thousand transliterations, spread over nearly fifteen hundred pages. They are an astonishing record of sustained first-hand engagement with cuneiform tablets.

CTIJ: Cuneiform Texts Mentioning Israelites, Judeans, and Other Related Groups

Judean captives leaving the city of Lachish to exile, ca. 701 BC.

Cuneiform texts and onomastic data pertaining to Israelites, Judeans, and related population groups during the Neo-Assyrian, Neo- and Late Babylonian, and Achaemenid Periods (744-330 BCE).
Project directed by Ran Zadok and Yoram Cohen, and funded by the "Ancient Israel" (New Horizons) Research Program of Tel Aviv University.

DCCLT: Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts

Drawing of a list of vessels from Archaic Uruk, circa 3500 BCE

Editions and translations of lexical texts (word lists and sign lists) from all periods of cuneiform writing
Project directed by Niek Veldhuis at UC Berkeley and supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

DCCLT/Nineveh: DCCLT/Lexical Texts in the Royal Libraries at Nineveh

Horned bull and archaizing sign list.

Nineveh provides editions of the lexical texts in the royal tablet collections discovered in the Assyrian capital. The project is supported by the NEH and was carried out in cooperation with the British Museum.

DCCLT/signlists: DCCLT/Reading the Signs

Editions and translations of all cuneiform sign lists from the middle of the third millennium B.C.E. until the end of cuneiform culture. The project is supported by the NEH.
Project directed by Niek Veldhuis. Editions by C. Jay Crisostomo.

DCCMT: Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts

Photo of an Old Babylonian school exercise on calculating the area of a triangle (Ashmolean 1931.91)

Catalogue of around a thousand published cuneiform mathematical tablets, with several hundred transliterations and translations.
Project run by Eleanor Robson at the University of Cambridge.

ETCSRI: Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Royal Inscriptions

Sculpted head of Gudea of Lagash with turban in the Louvre (AO 13). Photo by Gábor Zólyomi

An annotated, grammatically and morphologically analyzed, transliterated, trilingual (Sumerian-English-Hungarian), parallel corpus of all Sumerian royal inscriptions.
Directed by Gábor Zólyomi at Eötvos Loránd University, Budapest and funded by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA).

HBTIN: Hellenistic Babylonia: Texts, Iconography, Names


  A personal seal stamped into a cuneiform tablet from Hellenistic Uruk (BM 105203, detail).

Cuneiform texts, iconography and onomastic data from Hellenistic Babylonia, primarily from Uruk. HBTIN texts form the demonstrator corpus of the Berkeley Prosopography Service (BPS).
Directed by Laurie Pearce at UC Berkeley.

ISSL: The Index to the Sumerian Secondary Literature

Over 70,000 references to the Sumerian secondary literature which also indexes all of the transliterations of word writings in ePSD.

Nimrud: Nimrud: Materialities of Assyrian Knowledge Production

The Assyrian city of Nimrud, as re-imagined by its first excavator, Austen Henry Layard (detail).

A portal to all things related to the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud (Kalhu/Calah), on Oracc and beyond. Explores how scientific and historical knowledge is made from archaeological objects.
Directed by Eleanor Robson at the University of Cambridge and funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council.

OBMC: Old Babylonian Model Contracts

OBMC Logo

Edition of the Corpus of Old Babylonian Model Contracts by Gabriella Spada.

OBTA: Old Babylonian Tabular Accounts

Photo of southern Iraqi farm by ER

A catalogue and corpus of Old Babylonian tabular accounts by Eleanor Robson at University College London. Additions and corrections welcome.

OGSL: Oracc Global Sign List

LAK 25, from A. Deimel, Liste der Archaische Keilschriftzeichen.

Provides a global registry of sign names, variants and readings for use by Oracc.
Managed by Niek Veldhuis at UC Berkeley.

Qcat: The Q Catalogue

The letter Q; icon of the Orac Qcat project.

Provides a global registry of compositions rather than objects, supporting the creation of scores on Oracc.
Managed by Eleanor Robson at the University of Cambridge.

Rīm-Anum: The House of Prisoners

Rīm-Anum, king of Uruk (ca. 1741–1739 BC) revolted against Samsuiluna of Babylon, son of Hammurapi, and enjoyed a short-lived independence. The archive edited in this project derives from the house of prisoners (bīt asiri) that kept the prisoners of war. The editions and translations were prepared by Andrea Seri and accompanies her book "The House of Prisoners" (2013).
Buy the book from Harrassowitz.

RINAP: Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period

Excavating the Ninurta temple at Kalhu (Nimrud). Watercolor by F.C. Cooper.

Presents fully searchable, annotated editions of the royal inscriptions of Neo-Assyrian kings Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC), Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), Sargon II (721-705 BC), Sennacherib (704-681 BC), and Esarhaddon (680-669 BC).
Directed by Grant Frame at the University of Pennsylvania and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

RINAP 1: Tiglath-pileser III and Shalmaneser V

Cover image of RINAP 1

The official inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC) and Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), kings of Assyria, edited by Hayim Tadmor and Shigeo Yamada.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

RINAP 3: Sennacherib

Cover image of RINAP 3

The official inscriptions of Sennacherib (704-681 BC), king of Assyria, edited by A. Kirk Grayson and Jamie Novotny.
Buy Part 1 from Eisenbrauns and/or Part 2 from Eisenbrauns.

RINAP 4: Esarhaddon

Cover of RINAP 4, published by Eisenbrauns

The official inscriptions of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria (680-669 BC), edited by Erle Leichty.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

RINAP Scores

This sub-project of RINAP Online includes all fifty-five of the score transliterations published by the RINAP Project (2011-14).

RINAP Sources

This sub-project of RINAP Online includes transliterations of the available sources of the editions published by the RINAP Project (2011-14).

SAAo: State Archives of Assyria Online

A pair of Assyrian scribes filing reports after the conquest of a Babylonian city, Nimrud, 8th century BC (BM ANE 118882)

The online counterpart to the State Archives of Assyria series, released with the kind permission of The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project and its director Professor Simo Parpola.
Associated portal sites include Knowledge and Power and Assyrian Empire Builders.

Knowledge and Power

An Assyrian king with his scribes and scholars, as imagined 
  in the mid-19th century. (A.H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments 
  of Nineveh, London 1853, pl. 2 detail, after a sketch by J. 
  Fergusson).

Presents Neo-Assyrian scholars' letters, queries, and reports to their kings in seventh-century Nineveh and provides resources to support their use in undergraduate teaching.
Directed by Karen Radner at University College London and Eleanor Robson at the University of Cambridge; funded by the UK Higher Education Academy, 2007-10.

SAAo/SAA01: The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part I: Letters from Assyria and the West

Cover of published volume S. Parpola, The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part I: Letters from Assyria and the West (1987)

The text editions from the book S. Parpola, The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part I: Letters from Assyria and the West (State Archives of Assyria, 1), 1987.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA02: Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths

Cover of published volume S. Parpola and K. Watanabe, Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths (1988)

The text editions from the book S. Parpola and K. Watanabe, Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths (State Archives of Assyria, 2), 1988.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA03: Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea

Cover of published volume A. Livingstone, Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea (1989)

The text editions from the book A. Livingstone, Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea (State Archives of Assyria, 3), 1989.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA04: Queries to the Sungod: Divination and Politics in Sargonid Assyria

Cover of published volume I. Starr, Queries to the Sungod: Divination and Politics in Sargonid Assyria (1990)

The text editions from the book I. Starr, Queries to the Sungod: Divination and Politics in Sargonid Assyria (State Archives of Assyria, 4), 1990.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA05: The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part II: Letters from the Northern and Northeastern Provinces

Cover of published volume G. B. Lanfranchi and S. Parpola, The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part II: Letters from the Northern and Northeastern Provinces (1990)

The text editions from the book G. B. Lanfranchi and S. Parpola, The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part II: Letters from the Northern and Northeastern Provinces (State Archives of Assyria, 5), 1990.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA06: Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part I: Tiglath-Pileser III through Esarhaddon

Cover of published volume T. Kwasman and S. Parpola, Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part I: Tiglath-Pileser III through Esarhaddon (1991)

The text editions from the book T. Kwasman and S. Parpola, Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part I: Tiglath-Pileser III through Esarhaddon (State Archives of Assyria, 6), 1991.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA07: Imperial Administrative Records, Part I: Palace and Temple Administration

Cover of published volume F. M. Fales and J. N. Postgate, Imperial Administrative Records, Part I: Palace and Temple Administration (1992)

The text editions from the book F. M. Fales and J. N. Postgate, Imperial Administrative Records, Part I: Palace and Temple Administration (State Archives of Assyria, 7), 1992.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA08: Astrological Reports to Assyrian Kings

Cover of published volume H. Hunger, Astrological Reports to Assyrian Kings (1992)

The text editions from the book H. Hunger, Astrological Reports to Assyrian Kings (State Archives of Assyria, 8), 1992.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA09: Assyrian Prophecies

Cover of published volume S. Parpola, Assyrian Prophecies (1997)

The text editions from the book S. Parpola, Assyrian Prophecies (State Archives of Assyria, 9), 1997.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA10: Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars

Cover of published volume S. Parpola, Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars (1993)

The text editions from the book S. Parpola, Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars (State Archives of Assyria, 10), 1993.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA11: Imperial Administrative Records, Part II: Provincial and Militar Administration

Cover of published volume F. M. Fales and J. N. Postgate, Imperial Administrative Records, Part II: Provincial and Military Administration (1995)

The text editions from the book F. M. Fales and J. N. Postgate, Imperial Administrative Records, Part II: Provincial and Military Administration (State Archives of Assyria, 11), 1995.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

SAAo/SAA12: Grants, Decres and Gifts of the Neo-Assyrian Period

Cover of published volume L. Kataja and R. Whiting, Grants, Decrees and Gifts of the Neo-Assyrian Period (1995)

The text editions from the book L. Kataja and R. Whiting, Grants, Decrees and Gifts of the Neo-Assyrian Period (State Archives of Assyria, 12), 1995.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

SAAo/SAA13: Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Priests to Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal

Cover of published volume S. W. Cole and P. Machinist, Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Priests to Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal (1998)

The text editions from the book S. W. Cole and P. Machinist, Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Priests to Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal (State Archives of Assyria, 13), 1998.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA14: Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part II: Assurbanipal Through Sin-šarru-iškun

Cover of published volume R. Mattila, Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part II: Assurbanipal Through Sin-šarru-iškun (2002)

The text editions from the book R. Mattila, Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part II: Assurbanipal Through Sin-šarru-iškun (State Archives of Assyria, 14), 2002.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

SAAo/SAA15: The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part III: Letters from Babylonia and the Eastern Provinces

Cover of published volume A. Fuchs and S. Parpola, The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part III: Letters from Babylonia and the Eastern Provinces (2001)

The text editions from the book A. Fuchs and S. Parpola, The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part III: Letters from Babylonia and the Eastern Provinces (State Archives of Assyria, 15), 2001.
Buy the book from Eisenbrauns.

SAAo/SAA16: The Political Correspondence of Esarhaddon

Cover of published volume M. Luukko and G. Van Buylaere, The Political Correspondence of Esarhaddon (2002)

The text editions from the book M. Luukko and G. Van Buylaere, The Political Correspondence of Esarhaddon (State Archives of Assyria, 16), 2002.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA17: The Neo-Babylonian Correspondence of Sargon and Sennacherib

Cover of published volume M. Dietrich, The Neo-Babylonian Correspondence of Sargon and Sennacherib (2003)

The text editions from the book M. Dietrich, The Neo-Babylonian Correspondence of Sargon and Sennacherib (State Archives of Assyria, 17), 2003.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA18: The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and Letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-šarru-iškun from Northern and Central Babylonia

Cover of published volume F. S. Reynolds, The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and Letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-šarru-iškun from Northern and Central Babylonia (2003)

The text editions from the book F. S. Reynolds, The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and Letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-šarru-iškun from Northern and Central Babylonia (State Archives of Assyria, 18), 2003.
Out of print.

SAAo/SAA19: The Correspondence of Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II from Calah/Nimrud

Cover of published volume SAA 19

The text editions from the book Mikko Luukko, The Correspondence of Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II from Calah/Nimrud (State Archives of Assyria, 19), 2013.

SAAo/SAAS2: SAAo/Assyrian Eponym List

Cover of published volume A. Millard, The Eponyms of the Assyrian Empire, 910-612 BC (1994)

The text editions and composite translation from the book A. Millard, The Eponyms of the Assyrian Empire, 910-612 BC (State Archives of Assyria Studies 2), 1994.
Out of print.

Xcat: The X Catalogue

The X logo of XCat

Provides a global registry of cuneiform manuscripts, supplementary to CDLI.
Managed by Eleanor Robson at the University of Cambridge.