Inscriptions

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01

This text was engraved on nine stone tablets from Aššur, most of which were discovered in the ruins of the Aššur temple. Just as in other inscriptions of this ruler, there is a strong Babylonian influence in the language and script of the text, as well as in the prominent role of the god Enlil; that deity is praised alongside Aššur in the inscription's prologue (lines 1–17) and replaces (or is identified with) the Assyrian national god in the building report (lines 18–58) as the main occupant of the temple Eamkurkurra.

Ass 00887

Ist EȘEM 05223 (Ass 00887). Messerschmidt, KAH 1 no. 2

The main body of the inscription, the section between the introduction and concluding formulae, comprises three parts, with each being dedicated to a different ideological topos.
Although the building under construction is referred to as the "temple of the god Enlil," a strong ideological bond can be made between the temple, the king, and the city of Aššur through a sort of literary stratagem: the Akkadian "translation" that typically follows the Sumerian ceremonial name of the temple goes well beyond the punctual correspondence between words and adds a praise of the god Enlil ("my Lord") and the city of Aššur ("my city") before the concluding clause šumšu abbi ("I called it"; lines 52–58). The breakdown of the passage is as follows:

Eamkurkurra (Sumerian temple name)
bīt rīm mātātim (Akkadian translation: "Temple – Wild Bull of the Lands")
bīt dEnlil bēliya (first insertion: dedication to Enlil instead of Aššur)
ina qereb āliya Aššurki (second insertion: Ashur-bond)
šumšu abbi

After the building report, the inscription presents an ideological picture of the period "when I built the temple" by giving a utopian description of prices (of barley, wool, and oil), which is reminiscent of southern Mesopotamian practices (e.g. Sîn-kāšid, Sîn-iddinam, Sîn-iqīšam).

Immediately before the concluding formulae -- which contains advice to future rulers and curses -- Samsī-Addu records that he received tribute from the city Turkiš and from a king of the Upper Land and states that he set up a monumental inscription in Lebanon, on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. In this way the Assyrian king boasts about the extent of his dominion, which stretched from Turkiš (in northwestern Iran) in the east to the Sea of the Setting Sun in the west and, thus controlled everything, not just the land between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a region that Samsī-Addu claims to have pacified.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005645/] of Samsī-Addu I 01.

Source

(1) Ist EȘEM 05223 (Ass 00887) (2) Ist EȘEM 09520
(3) Private collection (4) Ist EȘEM 06877 (Ass 00863 + Ass 00891 (+) Ass 00899 + Ass 00947)
(5) Ass 17541 (6) Ass 06575
(7) Ass 16423 (8) Ass 16628
(9)Ass 16986

Bibliography

1904 Andrae, MDOG 21 p. 33 (exs. 1, 4, provenance)
1905 Andrae, MDOG 27 p. 15 (ex. 1, study)
1911 Messerschmidt, KAH 1 no. 2 and p. 73 (exs. 1, 4, copy)
1911-12 Luckenbill, AJSL 28 pp. 166-71 (exs. 1, 4, edition)
1915 Bezold, HKA pp. 3-7 (exs. 1, 4, edition)
1922 Schroeder, KAH 2 no. 146 (exs. 3, 5, vars.)
1926 Meissner, IAK VIII 1 (exs. 1, 3-9, edition)
1926-27 Luckenbill, ARAB 1 §§43-46; 2 p. 502 (exs. 1, 4, translation)
1926-27 Luckenbill, AJSL 43 pp. 213-14 (exs. 1, 3-5, study)
1961 Borger, EAK 1 pp. 11 and 14-15 (exs. 1, 3-9, study)
1965 Malamat, Landsberger Festschrift pp. 370-72 (study)
1968 Ellis, Foundation Deposits pp. 173 and 188-89 (study)
1969 Oppenheim, ANET3 p. 274 (translation)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 1 (translation)
1977 Andrae, WEA2 p. 122 (ex. 1, photo)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 pp. 47-51 (edition)


02

This inscription is reconstructed from numerous fragmentarily preserved stone cylinders and two rectangular blocks. Despite their poor state of preservation, it is assumed that all of pieces included here (see the catalogue below) bore the same single inscription since they were all discovered in the vicinity of the Ištar temple at Nineveh and since their physical characteristics are similar; according to A.K. Grayson (RIMA 1 p. 52), the cylinders are made of an imported black stone and, according to J. Reade, the rectangular-shaped blocks (exs. 4 and 7) are made from the same type of stone (Reade 2000).

The text, which is written in archaizing script, records the rebuilding of Emenue and Ekituškuga, respectively the temple and ziggurat of the goddess Ištar at Nineveh; the former is located on the citadel mound, within the temple complex of Emašmaš, a place where Samsī-Addu claims to have unearthed foundation documents (narê u temmēnī) of the earlier Sargonic king Man-ištušu, a son of the famous Sargon of Agade [http://cdli.ox.ac.uk/wiki/doku.php?id=biography_sargon]. As part of the restoration work, Samsī-Addu states that he returned the inscriptions of Man-ištušu that his workmen had discovered, placing them beside his own inscribed objects (presumably those written bearing this text); although no inscribed objects of this Akkadian ruler have been found in the ruins of the Ištar temple at Nineveh, monuments of Man-ištušu have been recovered from the Sippar "museum" (cf. RIME 2 p. 74–6), including imported black stone cylindrical- and rectangular-shaped foundation deposits inscribed with that ruler's so-called "standard inscription."
An inscription of the Middle Assyrian ruler Aššur-uballiṭ I [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/thekingdomofassyria13631115bc/ashuruballiti/index.html] written in archaizing script is engraved on a rectangular block [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/thekingdomofassyria13631115bc/ashuruballiti/index.html#ashuruballit11001] made of an imported black stone similar to that of the objects inscribed with this text of Samsī-Addu and the foundation records of Man-ištušu discovered at Sippar; that later text also records work undertaken on Ištar's temple at Nineveh. As suggested by Reade (2000, 75) -- who also adds a further unpublished and not ascribable inscription (1855-12-05, 0104 = BM 104406) to the list of related texts -- the shape, script, and unusual material of Samsī-Addu's foundation records represent a "deliberate attempt to emulate those of Man-ištušu;" the same can be said about the above mentioned text of Aššur-uballiṭ.

This project at Nineveh took place, as the inscription states, after the conquest of the Amorite kingdom Nurrugûm, to which the city belonged, in the eponymy of Aššur-malik (ca. 1780), Samsī-Addu's twenty-ninth regnal year. The restoration of this temple of Ištar, the careful redepositing of Man-ištušu's inscriptions, the writing of texts in archaizing script on imported black stone similar to the one used by Man-ištušu, and the use of similar phrasing (e.g. šar kiššatim) to Sargonic period texts suggest that Samsī-Addu made efforts to ideologically link his kingship to that of Agade, a city in which he lived in before the conquest of Nineveh (Ziegler 2004, 26), and which, according to a recent hypothesis (Charpin 2004, 372-5), might have also been Samsī-Addu's home town.

The fact that not a single foundation document of Man-ištušu has been unearthed from the Ištar temple of Nineveh is worth noting. This may be due to the fact that Assyrian kings after Aššur-uballiṭ made a concerted effort to erase evidence that kings of Agade had once held authority over Nineveh or had worked on the Ištar temple there (Reade 2005, 357; cf. Westenholz 2004); Man-ištušu was therefore not mentioned as a previous builder.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005646/] of Samsī-Addu I 02.

Commentary

The master text of the online edition presented here follows Grayson, RIMA 1, which generally relies on ex. 1. The exceptions are as follows:
Col. i 1–4 (ex. 1, 9), 5–6 (1, 4), 20–21 (2, 3), 22–23 (2), 24–25 (3, 11);
Col. ii 1 (5), 2 (4–5), 3 (4), 4–5 (4–5), 6 (1, 5), 20–22 (1–2), 23 (2);
Col. iii 2 (4), 3–5 (1, 4), 9 (1, 4), 24 (2), 25 (2, 7), 26 (2, 7, 18);
Col. iv 1 (1, 2), 6 (1, 19), 21—24 (1–3), 25 (2).

Sources: (1) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 01 BM 123341 (1932-12-10, 0001 + 1932-12-10, 0014)     (2) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 02 YBC 02370     (3) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 03 1932-12-10, 0006      (4) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 04 1932-12-10, 0007      (5) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 05 1932-12-10, 0008      (6) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 06 1932-12-10, 0005      (7) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 07 BM 099332 (1904-10-09, 0365 + 1932-12-10, 0007a)     (8) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 08 1880-07-19, 0211     (9) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 09 1932-12-10, 0017      (10) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 10 AAA 19 no. 260H     (11) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 11 AAA 19 no. 260J     (12) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 12 1932-12-10, 0012      (13) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 13 BM 099331 (1904-10-09, 0364)      (14) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 14 1932-12-10, 0013      (15) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 15 BM 099333 (1904-10-09, 0366)     (16) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 16 1932-12-10, 0020      (17) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 17 1932-12-10, 0011      (18) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 18 AAA 19 no. 260I     (19) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 19 1932-12-10, 0015      (20) Šamši-Adad I 02 ex. 20 Q 353-2012

Bibliography

1932 Thompson, AAA 19 pp. 105-107 and pls. LXXXI-LXXXIV nos. 260A-K and 268 (exs. 1, 3-7, 9-12, 14, 17-19, copy, edition)
1934 Thompson, Iraq 1 p. 98 (study)
1934 Dhorme, RHR 110 pp. 145-49 (study)
1937 Stephens, YOS 9 no. 70 (ex. 2, copy), pp. 16-17, and pl. 43 (photo)
1961 Borger, EAK 1 pp. 9-12 (edition)
1968 Ellis, Foundation Deposits passim and p. 173 (study)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 4 (translation)
1984 Walker, ARRIM 2 p. 21 (exs. 7-8, 13, 15-16, copy)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 pp. 51-55 (edition)
2000 Reade, NABU 2000/75 (study)
2004 Westenholz, Iraq 66 pp. 7-18 (study)
2004 Ziegler, Iraq 66 pp. 19-26 (study)
2005 Reade, Iraq 67 pp. 357-362 (study)


03

Two different royal inscriptions are written on a Neo Assyrian tablet from Nineveh; the texts may have been written as part of scribal exercise. The better-preserved obverse contains an inscription of Samsī-Addu I, while the badly damaged reverse preserved part of a text of Ikūnum [http:// http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/fromcolonytocitystate23341809bc/puzurashurdynasty/ikunum/index.html] (text no. 5 [http:// http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/fromcolonytocitystate23341809bc/puzurashurdynasty/ikunum/index.html#ikunum]), as correctly identified by H. Galter. Both inscriptions commemorate construction on a temple of the god Ereškigal, most probably in Aššur, as B.  Landsberger (1954, p. 36 n. 34) has suggested.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005647/] of Samsī-Addu I 03.

K 08805 + K 10238 + K 10888

K 08805 + K 10238 + K 10888. © The Trustees of the British Museum.

Source: K 08805 + K 10238 + K 10888

Bibliography

1901-02 Johns, AJSL 18 pp. 174-77 (copy, edition)
1908 Bezold, ZA 21 p. 250 (study)
1926 Meissner, IAK VIII 4 (edition)
1926 Luckenbill, ARAB 1 §40 (translation)
1950 Landsberger and Balkan, Belleten 14 pp. 252-53 (study)
1954 Landsberger, JCS 8 p. 36 n. 34 (study)
1961 Borger, EAK 1 pp. 17-18 (study)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 5 (translation)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 pp. 55-56 (edition)


04

One of two texts inscribed on the same clay tablet (the other one being text no. 5) found in the Old Babylonian palace at Mari. Like other texts belonging to this ruler and retrieved from similar contexts (nos. 5-7 and 2001-2), this was, as suggested by D. Charpin, a school exercise text. In this case the original inscription must have been engraved on the actual throne described in the text in which Samsī-Addu dedicates a throne of kamiššaru (pear) wood, decorated in gold, to Itūr-Mēr, god of Mari, sometime after the conquest of the city in the eponymy of Haya-malik.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005648/] of Samsī-Addu I 04.

Source: A 02231

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 42-44, 69, and 73 no. 1 (photo, copy, edition)
1985 Lambert, MARI 4 pp. 538-39 (study)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 p. 56 (edition)


05

This text was written on the reverse of text no. 4 and like that inscription it probably represents a school exercise. The text is extremely similar, although not identical, to text no. 4. Here, the golden decorated throne that is dedicated to Itūr-Mēr, god of Mari, is made of ebony.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005649/] of Samsī-Addu I 05.

Source: A 02231

Bibliography

1985 Charpin, RA 79 p. 91 (study)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 p. 57 (edition)


06

This text was found in the Old Babylonian palace at Mari (like texts nos. 4-5, 7, and 2001-2) and it was probably a school exercise copy of an inscription originally attached to a bronze kettledrum dedicated to Ištar-šarrum (but see, D. Carpin, CDOG 3 [2004] p. 373 n. 13 for a different interpretation).

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005650/] of Samsī-Addu I 06.

Source: A 04509

Bibliography

1939 Dossin, Syria 20 p. 98 (study)
1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 44-45, 69, and 74 no. 2 (photo, copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 pp. 57-58 (edition)


07

A tablet found in the Old Babylonian palace at Mari is most likely a school text. The original inscription commemorates the dedication of some "twin" objects to the god Dagan, and it was probably engraved on each of them. D. Charpin has suggested matching the šākultu with the cultic banquet tākultu of later periods (see Adad-nerari I text no. 26-27, and Shalmaneser I text no. 25-27). The "twins" mentioned in the inscription could be identified as large containers or vases similar to those present in Erišum I text no. 1:12.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005651/] of Samsī-Addu I 07.

Source: A 00889

Bibliography

1939 Dossin, Syria 20 pp. 98-99 (study)
1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 47-49, 70, and 75 no. 4 (photo, copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 pp. 58-59 (edition)


08

A clay tablet from Terqa records the construction of a temple for Dagan in that city. The meaning of the name of the temple -- Ekisiga in Sumerian and bīt qūltīšu in Akkadian – has been long discussed, but both dictionaries AHw (p. 927) and CAD (Q p. 302) agree on "His Silent Temple."

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005652/] of Samsī-Addu I 08.

Source: AO 04628

Bibliography

1908 Condamin, ZA 21 pp. 247-49 (copy, study, edition)
1908 Bezold, ZA 21 pp. 250-54 (study)
1924 Thureau-Dangin, Syria 5 p. 266 (study)
1926 Meissner, IAK VIII 5 (edition)
1926 Luckenbill, ARAB 1 §42 (study)
1966 Finkelstein, JCS 20 pp. 115-16 (study)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 6 (translation)
1976 Larsen, City-State p. 221 (study)
1982 Bottéro in G. Gnoli (ed.), La Mort, les morts dans les sociétés anciennes (Paris) p. 403 n. 18 (edition)
1985 Russell, Iraq 47 p. 63 (edition)
1985 Tsukimoto, Totenpflege pp. 70-73 (study)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 pp. 59-60 (edition)


09

This short text was stamped on several clay bricks found at Aššur; they are thought to have originally belonged to the Aššur temple.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005653/] of Samsī-Addu I 09.

Sources: (1) BM 090106 (1979-12-20, 0053)      (2) BM 090254 (1979-12-20, 0156)     (3) Ass 18359     (4) Ist EȘEM 09336 (Ass 18809)     (5) Ass 20013     (6) AO 08313      (7) Ass 019523     (8) Ist EȘEM -

Bibliography

1861 1 R pl. 6 no. 1 (exs. 1-2, copy)
1872 G. Smith, Notes on the Early History of Assyria and Babylonia pp. 3-4 (exs. 1-2, copy, edition)
1887 Winckler, ZA 2 pp. 313-14 and pl. III no. 9 (exs. 1-2, copy)
1889 Schrader, KB 1 pp. 2-3 (exs. 1-2, edition)
1902 King, AKA p. xix no. 1 and p. 2 (exs. 1-2, photo, copy, edition)
1922 Schroeder, KAH 2 no. 16 (exs. 3-5, copy)
1923 Thureau-Dangin, RA 20 pp. 7-8 (ex. 6, photo, edition)
1926 Meissner, IAK VIII 3 (exs. 1-7, edition)
1926 Luckenbill, ARAB 1 §41 (exs. 1-5, translation)
1947 Böhl, Chrestomathy no. 2a (exs. 1-5, copy)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 3 (exs. 1-7, translation)
1981 Walker, CBI no. 120 (exs. 1-2, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.9 pp. 60-1 (edition)


10

The text presented here was inscribed on this monarch's personal seal. It is known from seal impressions found on several clay tablets and envelopes. These were discovered in palaces at both Mari and Acem höyük.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005654/] of Samsī-Addu I 10.

Sources: (1) Ank - (Ac i 888)     (2) Ank - (Ac i 898)     (3) Ank - (Ac i 834)     (4) 72132     (5) M 05148     (6) M 05151    

Bibliography

1973 Birot, Syria 50 p. 9 n. 1 (exs. 4-6, provenance)
1980 Özgüç, in E. Porada (ed.), Ancient Art in Seals (Princeton) pp. 64-65 and fig. III-1a-c (exs. 1-3, photo, study)
1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 51-53, 70, and 81 (exs. 4-6, photo, copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.10 p. 61 (edition)


11

This brief text evidently served as a label for several types of object, as it has been discovered both stamped on several clay bricks and inscribed on stone door sockets and a small precious stone. The precious stone also has a poorly preserved eight-line Sumerian inscription written on it. The legible text (the first two lines) read as follows: dnin-é-an-na nin-a-ni-ir "To the goddess Nin-eanna, his mistress." All of these objects were discovered in the Aššur temple at Aššur.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005655/] of Samsī-Addu I 11.

Sources: (1) Ass 12814     (2) Ass 17306     (3) Ass 17001     (4) BM 089906 (1851-10-09, 0044)      (5) Ist EȘEM 06668 (Ass 00833)     (6) VA Ass 03217b (Ass 16500)     (7) VA Ass 03217d (Ass 17319a)     (8) VA Ass 03217e (Ass 17926b)     (9) VA Ass 03217f (Ass 17927)     (10) VA Ass 03217c (Ass 17319)     (11) VA Ass 03217a (Ass 01844)     (12) Ist EȘEM 06666 (probably Ass 07193)     (13) Ist EȘEM 09269 (Ass 18367)     (14) Ist EȘEM 09270      (15) Ist EȘEM 09271      (16) Ist EȘEM 09272      (17) Ist EȘEM 09273      (18) VA Ass 03217g      (19) Ist EȘEM - (probably Ass 11968)     (20) Ist EȘEM -      (21) VA Ass 03217h (Ass 17928 + Ass 17928a)

Bibliography

1872 G. Smith, Notes on the Early History of Assyria and Babylonia p. 5 (ex. 4, copy, edition)
1889 Schrader, KB 1 pp. 2-3 (ex. 4, edition)
1902 King, AKA p. 2 n. 4 (ex. 4, copy, edition)
1904 Andrae, MDOG 21 p. 30 (ex. 5, edition)
1905 Andrae, MDOG 27 p. 12 (ex. 5, study)
1910 Andrae, MDOG 44 p. 31 (exs. 1-3, provenance)
1911 Messerschmidt, KAH 1 no. 34 (ex. 5, copy)
1922 Schroeder, KAH 2 no. 17 (exs. 6-9, copy)
1926 Meissner, IAK VIII 2 (exs. 1-2, 4-9, edition)
1926 Luckenbill, ARAB 1 §§42, 729 (exs. 4-9, translation)
1933-34 Weidner, AfO 9 p. 89 n. 7 (ex. 5, study)
1938 Andrae, WEA1 p. 123 (photo)
1955 Haller, Heiligtümer p. 21 and pl. 32a (ex. 3, provenance, photo)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 2 (exs. 1-9, translation)
1984 Marzahn and Rost, Ziegeln 1 nos. 78-85 (exs. 6-11, 18, 21, study)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.11 p. 62 (edition)


12

This proprietary label of the king is preserved on a black and white agate eyestone; only one of his titles is given. The object was found at Khorsabad and is now housed in the Louvre.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005656/] of Samsī-Addu I 12.

Source: A 00823

Bibliography

1854 Longpérier, Notice des Antiquités assyriennes 3e édit. no. 505 (study)
1923 Delaporte, Louvre 2 no. A 823 (copy, edition)
1928 Meissner, IAK VIII 6 (edition)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 7 (translation)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.12 p. 63 (edition)


1001

This fragmentary inscription is engraved on a broken relief that was discovered in Mardin or at Sinjar, according to V. Scheil report. Because the name of the ruler who had this object commissioned is completely broken away, there is no scholarly consensus on the identity of the Old Babylonian/Assyrian king to whom the stele belongs. A. Goetze (1952) suggests Daduša of Ešnunna, Nagel (1959) proposes Narām-Sîn of Ešnunna, and W. von Soden (1953), J. Læssøe (1959), and D. Charpin and J.-M. Durand (1985) argue for Samsī-Addu I. The latter suggestion is tentatively followed here, as A.K. Grayson did in RIMA 1.

AO 02776

AO 02776 © Musée du Louvre / Pierre et Maurice Chuzeville

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005657/] of Samsī-Addu I 1001.

Source: AO 02776

Bibliography

1899 Scheil, RT 21 p. 126 (study)
1910 de Genouillac, RA 7 pp. 151-56 and pls. 5-6 (photo, copy, edition)
1952 Goetze, RA 46 pp. 155-57 (edition)
1953 von Soden, Orientalia NS 22 pp. 256-57 (edition)
1959 Nagel, ZA 53 pp. 133-35 (study)
1959 Laessøe, Shemshara pp. 74-75 (study)
1972 Grayson, ARI 1 XXXIX 8 (translation)
1980 Death pl. X (photo)
1985 Charpin and Durand, MARI 4 p. 315 (study)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.1001 pp. 63-5 (edition)


2001

A clay tablet found in the Old Babylonian palace in Mari (see also text no. 4-7) bears two dedicatory inscriptions (text nos. 2001 and 2002), both of which are school exercise copies. Each text consists of a name of a cultic lion figurine that was dedicated by Samsī-Addu to the goddess Ištar. The originals are presumed to have been engraved on the figurines themselves, which, according to text no. 2002, were placed Emeurur, most likely a shrine of Ištar in Mari.
The inscribed figurines were made sometime after Samsī-Addu captured Mari, an event that took place in the eponymy of Haya-malik.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005658/] of Samsī-Addu I 2001.

Source: AO - (M 07499)

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 45-47, 70, and 75 no. 3 (photo, copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2001 pp. 65-6 (edition)


2002

See introduction to no. 2001.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005659/] of Samsī-Addu I 2002.

Source: AO - (M 07499)

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 45-47, 70, and 75 no. 3 (photo, copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 p. 66 A.0.39.2002 (edition)


2003

This text has been discovered in the form of seal impressions on several tablets at Mari. The seal itself was the property of Amaduga, "female servant" of Samsī-Addu.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005660/] of Samsī-Addu I 2003.

Source: Birot, ARM(T) 9 nos. 2, 41, 43, and 106

Bibliography

1960 Birot, ARM(T) 9 nos. 2, 41, 43, and 106 (copy, edition)
1963 Burke, ARMT 11 nos. 56, 69, 72-73, 75, 77, 84-85, 87, 91, 95, 97, 150, and 270 (edition)
1964 Birot, ARMT 12 nos. 16, 18, 137-40, 144, 147, 151, 155-56, 160, 162, 165, 168, 171, 175, 182-85, 189-91, 193, 197, 204, 210-11, 218-20, 225, 228, 230, 232-35, 238-39, 247, 252-53, 256, 259, 423, 428, 434-35, 439, 450, 452-54, 460, 716, and 721 (edition)
1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 50-53 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2003 pp. 66-7 (edition)


2004

The seal of Iamatti-El, "servant" of Samsī-Addu, is known from an impression on a clay tablet found in the Old Babylonian palace at Mari.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005661/] of Samsī-Addu I 2004.

Source: Durand, ARMT 21 no. 91

Bibliography

1983 Durand, ARMT 21 no. 91 (p. 569 no. 13)
1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 51-53 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2004 p. 67 (edition)


2005

This text is known from a seal impression on a clay tablet discovered in the Old Babylonian palace at Mari. The seal was once the property of a "servant" of Samsī-Addu, Iaḫuzānum, son of Zamāmu.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005662/] of Samsī-Addu I 2005.

Source: M 10359

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 51-53 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2005 pp. 67-8 (edition)


2006

The text of the inscribed seal of a "servant" of Samsī-Addu -- Ammī-iluna, son of Irra-i-[...] -- is known from an impression on a clay tablet discovered at Mari.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005663/] of Samsī-Addu I 2006.

Source: A 00675bis

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 51-53 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2006 p. 68 (edition)


2007

This proprietary label is known only in the form of a seal impression on a clay envelope from Mari. The now-lost seal was the originally the property of Samsī-Addu's "servant" Iattiya, son of Samsī-malik.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005664/] of Samsī-Addu I 2007.

Source: Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 62–63 and 70 no. 9

Bibliography

1983 Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 62-63 and 70 no. 9 (copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2007 p. 68 (edition)


2008

A clay envelope discovered at Mari bears an impression of the seal of [Ia]matti-[El], son of Hata, "servant" of Samsī-Addu (cf. text no. 2004).

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005665/] of Samsī-Addu I 2008.

Source: Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 63 and 71 no. 12,2

Bibliography

1983 Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 63 and 71 no. 12, 2 (copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2008 p. 69 (edition)


2009

This text is known from two exemplars, both in the form of seal impressions on clay envelopes; the objects were discovered at Mari. The original seal, which is now lost, was the property of Tarim-š[akim], "servant" of Samsī-Addu.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005666/] of Samsī-Addu I 2009.

Sources: () Šamši-Adad I 2009 ex. 1 Parrot, MAM 2/3 pl. 56 no. 250     () Šamši-Adad I 2009 ex. 2 Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 63 and 71 no. 12,5

Bibliography

1959 Parrot, MAM 2/3 pl. LVI no. 250 (photo)
1983 Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 63 and 71 no. 12, 5 (copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2009 p. 69 (edition)


2010

Four tablets from Mari bear an impression of a seal of a "servant" of Samsī-Addu. That seal was once the property of Umannisuta, son of Idin-[...].

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005667/] of Samsī-Addu I 2010.

Sources: (1-4) Šamši-Adad I 2010 ex. 1 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 98–99 and 103 nos. 106–109

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 98-99 and 103 nos. 106-109 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2010 p. 70 (edition)


2011

This text is known from an impression on a clay tablet discovered at Mari. The now-lost seal was the property of Samsī-Addu's "servant" Adad-saga, son of Ḫaziya.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005668/] of Samsī-Addu I 2011.

Source: Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 102 and 106 no. 130

Bibliography

1984 Charpin, MARI 3 pp. 102 and 126 no. 130 (copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2011 p. 70 (edition)


2012

The seal of [M]ašiya, son of Šalim, a "servant" of Samsī-Addu, is knowm from a impression on a clay tablet from Mari.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005669/] of Samsī-Addu I 2012.

Source: Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 86–87 and 107 no. 194

Bibliography

1983 Charpin, MARI 2 pp. 86-87 and 107 no. 194 (copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2012 p. 70 (edition)


2013

Several clay tablets and envelopes unearthed at Tell al Rimah bear seal impressions of a seal that was the property of Lu-Ninsianna, "servant" of Samsī-Addu.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005670/] of Samsī-Addu I 2013.

Sources: (1) Šamši-Adad I 2013 ex. 1 IM 075840,53 (TR 5904)     (2) Šamši-Adad I 2013 ex. 2 IM 075880,73 (TR 6109)

Bibliography

1972 D. Oates, Iraq 34 pp. 85-86 (exs. 1-2, provenance)
1976 Hawkins in Dalley, OBTR p. 249 and pl. 107 no. 3 (exs. 1-2, copy, edition)
1980 Al-Gailani Werr, BIA 17 p. 51 no. 32F (copy)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2013 p. 71 (edition)


2014

The seal of Samsī-Addu's "servant" [Zi]mrī-hammu, son of [S]umu-ammim, is known from impressed clay envelope found at Tell al Rimah. The object is currently housed in the Iraq Museum.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005671/] of Samsī-Addu I 2014.

Source: IM 075840,54 (TR 5688)

Bibliography

1970 D. Oates, Iraq 32 p. 9 (provenance)
1972 D. Oates, Iraq 34 pp. 85-86 (provenance)
1976 Hawkins in Dalley, OBTR p. 250 and pl. 107 no. 4 (copy, edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2014 pp. 71-2 (edition)


2015

Impressions of a seal of a certain D[agan-...], a "servant" of Samsī-Addu, were found on tablets discovered at Tell Leilan, during the 1979 season (led by H. Weiss).

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005672/] of Samsī-Addu I 2015.

Sources: (1) Šamši-Adad I 2015 ex. 1 NMSDeZ - (L 79-184)     (2) Šamši-Adad I 2015 ex. 2 NMSDeZ - (L 79-197)

Bibliography

1983 Foster (apud Weiss), AAAS 33 pp. 60 and 66 fig. 14 (copy, translation)
1985 Foster (apud Weiss), MARI 4 pp. 282-83 fig. 12 (copy, translation)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2015 p. 72 (edition)


2016

This text is known from a seal impression on a clay tablet found at Tell Leilan, in a Building Level II structure. The seal itself, which is now lost, was the property of Samsī-Addu's "servant" Ṣurri-Adad, son of [Z]idriya.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005673/] of Samsī-Addu I 2016.

Source: NMSDeZ - (L 82-105)

Bibliography

1983 Snell (apud Weiss), AAAS 33 pp. 60 and 66 fig. 10 (copy, translation)
1985 Snell (apud Weiss), MARI 4 pp. 281-82 fig. 8 (copy, translation)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2016 p. 72 (edition)


2017

A cylinder seal made of haematite now in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) is inscribed with a proprietary label of Ibāl-eraḫ, son of Kiabkurānu, "servant" of Samsī-Addu. The original provenance of the object is unknown.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005674/] of Samsī-Addu I 2017.

Source: DMMA 216

Bibliography

1910 Delaporte, Bibliothèque Nationale no. 216 (photo, edition)
1910 Delaporte, Revue Archéologique pp. 26-27 and fig. 3
1926 Unger, RLV 4 pl. 160 fig. c (photo)
1955 Meyer in Preusser, Paläste p. 11 (edition)
1980 Al-Gailani Werr, BIA 17 p. 50 no. 32c (copy)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2017 p. 73 (edition)


2018

A seal of unknown provenance bears a short proprietary label of Laḫar-abī, the scribe, son of Kakisum, "servant" of Samsī-Addu. The object is currently housed in the Louvre (Paris).

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005675/] of Samsī-Addu I 2018.

Source: AO 01935

Bibliography

1913 Delaporte, RA 10 p. 91 (photo)
1923 Delaporte, Louvre 2 A 284 (pl. 78 no. 6) (photo, edition)
1926 Unger, RLV 4 pl. 160 fig. a (photo)
1955 Meyer in Preusser, Paläste p. 11 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2018 p. 73 (edition)


2019

A seal of unknown provenance and now in the Louvre in Paris is inscribed with a proprietary label of Samsī-Addu's "servant" Sîn-iqīšam, son of Būr-Adad.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005676/] of Samsī-Addu I 2019.

Source: AO 06248

Bibliography

1913 Delaporte, RA 10 p. 91 (photo)
1923 Delaporte, Louvre 2 A 359 (pl. 80 no. 12) (photo, edition)
1926 Unger, RLV 4 pl. 160 fig. b (photo)
1955 Meyer in Preusser, Paläste p. 12 (edition)
1980 Al-Gailani Werr, BIA 17 p. 50 no. 32b (copy)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2019 pp. 73-4 (edition)


2020

A seal of Rīš-ilu, son of Aduanniam, states that this man was a "servant" of Samsī-Addu. The original find spot of the object is not known. The positioning of the signs in the inscription is a little strange: the DUMU sign is oddly placed and the name of the father of the seal's owner (a-du-an-ni-am) is not written in a straight line.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005677/] of Samsī-Addu I 2020.

Source: BM 129511 (1945-10-13, 0055)

Bibliography

1904 Pinches, Manchester Memoirs 48/25 p. 18 (edition)
1908 Pinches in Southesk, Catalogue 2 no. QB 18 (photo, copy, edition)
1910 Ward, Seals no. 321 (copy)
1930 Langdon, RA 27 pp. 23-25 (photo, copy, edition)
1930 Dossin, RA 27 pp. 91-92 (edition)
1931 Langdon in MacCulloch (ed.), Mythology of all Races, vol. 5 Semitic p. 413 n. 12 (study)
1939 Frankfort, Cylinder Seals pl. XXVIk (photo)
1943 Ungnad, OLZ 46 393-94 (edition)
1954 Albright, JAOS 74 p. 228 n. 39 (study)
1961 Gelb, JCS 15 p. 43 n. 50 (study)
1980 Al-Gailani Werr, BIA 17 p. 51 no. 32F (copy)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2020 p. 74 (edition)


2021

A seal of unknown provenance bears a short proprietary label of Pazaia, son of Aḫi-šakim, "servant" of Samsī-Addu.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005678/] of Samsī-Addu I 2021.

Source: MPF -

Bibliography

1910 Delaporte, Revue Archéologique p. 110 1913 Delaporte, RA 10 p. 89-90 (photo, study)
1926 Unger, RLV 4 pl. 160 fig. e (photo)
1955 Meyer in Preusser, Paläste pp. 11-12 (edition)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2021 p. 75 (edition)


2022

A seal once belonging to Samsī-Addu's "servant" Kunnat[um], son of Mezi-[...], was acquired by J.C. Rich during his travels in the Middle East and the Joanneum in Graz, where it is still housed.

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005679/] of Samsī-Addu I 2022.

Source: JMA -

Bibliography

1926 Unger, RLV 4 pl. 160 fig. d (photo)
1955 Meyer in Preusser, Paläste p. 12 (edition)
1980 Al-Gailani Werr, BIA 17 p. 52 no. 32F (copy)
1981 Bleibtreu, Rollsiegel aus dem Vorderen Orient (Wien) no. 52 (photo, study)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2022 p. 75 (edition)


2023

This text is known from the seal of Samiya, son of Ḫani-m[alik], a "servant" of an Old Assyrian king. While the full name of the monarch in question is not preserved, the orthography of the beginning of the name suggests that the text should be attributed to the reign of Samsī-Addu I [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/fromcolonytocitystate23341809bc/ilushumma/index.html].

[Poppy Tushingham]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q005680/] of Samsī-Addu I 2023.

Source: Parrot, Documents pp. 212–215, fig. 115, and pls. 43–44

Bibliography

1959 Parrot, Documents pp. 212-15, fig. 115, and pls. XLIII-XLIV (photo, study)
1960 Dossin (apud Amiet), Syria 37 pp. 222-23 (edition)
1972 Marzal, Orientalia NS 41 p. 364 n. 19 (edition)
1980 Al-Gailani Werr, BIA 17 p. 75 bottom (copy)
1987 Grayson, RIMA 1 A.0.39.2023 p. 76 (edition)

Nathan Morello & Poppy Tushingham

Nathan Morello & Poppy Tushingham, 'Inscriptions', The Royal Inscriptions of Assyria online (RIAo) Project, The RIAo Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2021 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/fromsamsiaddutomittanicilent18081364bc/samsiaddudynasty/samsiaddui/inscriptions/]

 
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