Synchronistic King List (Ass 14616c)

A sizeable portion of a large clay tablet (Ass 14616c) discovered during Walter Andrae's excavations at the Assyrian capital Aššur is inscribed with a list of rulers of Assyria and their Babylonian contemporaries, from the beginning of Assyrian kingship to the reign of Assyria's last great king, Ashurbanipal (668-ca. 631 BC). This tablet is the best preserved of the so-called Synchronistic King Lists []; there are five other fragments from Aššur with similar compositions.

Sources of the Synchronistic King List (from Chen 2020, p. 6)
ExemplarsExcavation no.Museum no. Photo no. Copy Dimensions height × width (cm)
Main exemplarAss 14616 cA 117Assur 4128aKAV 216; MVAG 26/2; AfO 3, 70–71
Fragments VAT 11931KAV 96.1×3.1
VAT 11261KAV 105.1×5.8
VAT 11345KAV 133.1×3.4
VAT 11262KAV 113.8×2.5
VAT 11338KAV 122.3×4.6
Ass 13956 d hA 118Assur 4198bKAV 182

The tablet Ass 14616c had two columns on its obverse and reverse faces, both of which are further divided into two sub-columns. The names of the Assyrian kings were recorded in the left sub-column, while those of their Babylonian counterparts were listed in the right sub-column. The extant text of Ass 14616c includes the names of rulers from the Second Dynasty of Isin [/ribo/babylon2/index.html] (1157-1026 BC), the Second Dynasty of the Sealand [/ribo/babylon3/index.html] (1025-1005 BC), the Bazi Dynasty [/ribo/babylon4/index.html] (1004-985 BC), the Elamite Dynasty [/ribo/babylon5/index.html] (984-979 BC), and the period of the Uncertain Dynasties [/ribo/babylon6/index.html] (978-626 BC). This version of the Synchronistic King List [] was probably inscribed during the reign of the Assyrian king Aššur-etel-ilāni (ca. 631-627/626 BC).

i 1')   Ad[āsi ditto]  ... [ditto]  
i 2')   Bēl-bāni ditto  Iškibal [ditto]  
i 3')   Libāya ditto  Šu(š)ši [ditto]  
i 4')   Šarma-Adad (I) ditto  Gilkišar [ditto]  
i 5')   IB.TAR-Sîn ditto  GÍŠ-EN [ditto]  
i 6')   Bāzāyu ditto  Pešgaldaramaš [di]tto  
i 7')   Lullāyu ditto  Adarakalamma ditto  
i 8')   Kidin-Ninua ditto  Ekurduanna ditto  
i 9')   Šarma-Adad (I) ditto  Melamkurkurra ditto  
i 10')   Erišu(m) (III) ditto  Ea-ga(mil) Gandaš ditto  
i 11')   Šamšī-Adad (II) ditto  Ag[u]m the first, his son ditto  
i 12')   ditto ditto  Kaštiliaš (I) ditto  
i 13')   ditto ditto  Abi-R[a]ttaš ditto  
i 14')   ditto ditto  Kaštiliaš ditto  
i 15')   ditto ditto  Urzig[ur]umaš ditto  
i 16')   ditto ditto  Ḫarba-... ditto  
i 17')   ditto ditto  ... ditto  
i 18')   ditto ditto  ... ditto  
i 19')   Išme-Dagān (II) ditto  Burna-B[ur]iaš (I) ditto  
i 20')   [Šamšī]-Adad (III) ditto  [...] ditto  
i 21')   [Aššur-nārā]rī (I) ditto  ...[...] ditto  
i 22')   [Puzur-Ašš]ur (III) ditto  ... ditto  
i 23')   Enlil-nāṣir (I) ditto  [ditto] ditto  
i 24')   [Nū]r-ili ditto  [ditto] ditto  
i 25')   [Ašš]u[r-šadû]ni ditto  [ditto] ditto  
ii 1')   Tukultī-[Ninurta (I) ditto]  [... ditto]  
ii 2')   ... [...]  [...]  
ii 3')   Aššur-nādin-apli ditto  [... ditto]  
ii 4')   ditto ditto  [... ditto]  
ii 5')   [Ašš]ur-nārārī (III) ditto  [... ditto]  
ii 6')   Enlil-kudur(rī)-uṣur ditto  ditto [ditto]  
ii 7')   [Nin]urta-apil-Ekur ditto  Adad-[šuma-uṣur ditto]  
ii 8')   [ditto] ditto  Meli-Šipak [ditto]  
ii 9')   [ditto] ditto  [M]arduk-apla-iddina (I) [ditto]  
ii 10')   Ašš[ur-d]ān (I) ditto  [... ditto]  
ii 11')   [ditto] ditto  Enlil-nādin-[aḫi ditto]  
ii 12')   Ninurta-tukulti-Aššur ditto  Marduk-... [ditto]  
ii 13')   Mutakkil-Nusku  ... [ditto]  
ii 14')   Aššur-rēša-iši (I)  Ninurta-[nādin]-šumi [ditto]  
ii 15')   ditto ditto  Nabû-kudur(rī)-uṣur (I) [ditto]  
ii 16')   ditto ditto  Enlil-nādin-apli [ditto]  
ii 17')   Tiglath-[p]il[e]ser (I) ditto  Marduk-nādin-aḫḫē [ditto]  
ii 18')   Ašarēd-apil-Ekur ditto  ... [ditto]  
ii 19')   (blank)  ... (was) [his] sc[holar]   
ii 20')   Aššur-bēl-kala ditto  Marduk-[... ditto]  
ii 21')   Aššur-bēl-kala ditto  Adad-[... ditto]  
ii 22')   Aššur-bēl-kala ditto  [... ditto]  
ii 23')   ditto ditto  [... ditto]  
ii 24')   ditto ditto  [... ditto]  
iii 1)   Erība-Adad (II) [king of Assyria]  [... king of Akkad]   
iii 2)   (blank)  ...[...]  
iii 3)    Šamšī-Adad (IV) ditto  Ea-[mukīn-zēri ditto]  
iii 4)   Ashurnaṣirpal (I) ditto  Kaššû-[nādin-aḫḫē ditto]  
iii 5)   Shalmaneser (II) ditto  (E)ulmaš-[šākin-šumi ditto]  
iii 6)   Aššur-nārārī (IV) ditto  Ninurta-ku[dur(rī)-uṣur (I) ditto]  
iii 7)   Aššur-rabi (II) ditto  Širikti-[Šuqamuna ditto]  
iii 8)   Aššur-rēša-iši (II) ditto  Mār-bīti-apla-uṣur ditto]  
iii 9)   Tiglath-pileser (II) ditto  [Nabû]-m[ukīn]-apli [ditto]  
iii 10)   ditto [ditto]  [Ninurta-kudur(rī)]-uṣur (II) [ditto]  
iii 11)   ditto [ditto]  [Mār-bīti]-aḫḫē-iddina [ditto]  
iii 12)   (blank)  [... (was) his] scholar  
iii 13)   Aššur-dān (II) ditto  Šamaš-mudammiq [ditto]  
iii 14)   Adad-nārārī (II) ditto  ditto [ditto]  
iii 15)   (blank)  Qalīya (was) [his] s[cholar]  
iii 16)   Tukultī-Ninurta (II) ditto  Nabû-šuma-ukīn (I) [ditto]  
iii 17)   Gabbi-ilāni-ēreš  (was) [his] scholar  
iii 18)   Ashurnasirpal (II) ditto  Nabû-apla-iddina [ditto]  
iii 19)   Gabbi-ilāni-ēreš   (was) [his] scholar   
iii 20)   Shalmaneser (III) ditto  [...]  
iii 21)   ...ḫāyu (was) [his] sc[holar]  [(blank)]  
iii 22)   [Šam]šī-A[dad (V) ditto]  [... ditto]  
iv 1)   [Senn]acherib, king of Assyria   [and Babylo]n  
iv 2)   Nabû-apla-iddina (was) his scholar   [(...)]  
iv 3)     [...]   
iv 4)     king of Akkad. Afterwards, the people [of Ak]kad  
iv 5)     rebelled and  
iv 6)     [he] placed [Aš]šur-nādin-šumi on the throne.   
iv 7)   Sennacherib   Nergal-(u)šēzib, son of G[a]ḫul,   
iv 8)     (and) Mušēzib-Marduk, son of D[a]kkūri,   
iv 9)     kings of A[kk]ad.   
iv 10)   Sennacherib, king of Assyria  and Babylon  
iv 11)   Bēl-upaḫḫir (and)   Kalbu (were) his schol[ars]   
iv 12)   Esarhaddon, son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria   and Babylon  
iv 13)   Nabû-zēru-līšer (and)   Ištar-šumu-ēreš (were) his scholars  
iv 14)   Ashurbanipal ditto  Šamaš-šuma-ukīn ditto  
iv 15)   Ashurbanipal ditto  Kandalānu ditto  
iv 16)   Ištar-šumu-ēreš (was) his scholar    
iv 17)   Eighty-two kings of Assyria  from Erišu(m) (I), son of Ilu-šumma  
iv 18)   to Ashurbanipal, son of  Esarhaddon.  
iv 19)   Ninety-eight kings of Akkad    
iv 20)   from Sūmû-la-Il  to Kandalānu.  
iv 21)   ...  of Nabû-tuklassu.  

Selected Bibliography

Chen, F., Study on the Synchronistic King List from Ashur, Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2020.

Grayson, A.K., 'Königslisten und Chroniken. B. Akkadisch,' in: D.O. Edzard (ed.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie 6/1–2, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 1980, pp. 116–121 §3.12.

Schroeder, O., Keilschrifttexte aus Assur verschiedenen Inhalts (= Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 35). Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1920, no. 216.

Weidner, E.F., 'Die große Königsliste aus Assur,' Archiv für Orientforschung 3 (1926), pp. 70–71.

Nathan Morello

Nathan Morello, 'Synchronistic King List (Ass 14616c)', The Royal Inscriptions of Assyria online (RIAo) Project, The RIAo Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2021 []

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