Inscriptions, texts nos. 63-86: Balawat Gates' epigraphs

Here are presented the texts of the epigraphs that were engraved on the bronze bands of the Balawat Gates. A further lengthier inscription was also engraved in two exemplars on each of the two bronze coverings that were attached to the edge of the gate leaves, at the point where they meet, and it is catalogued as text no. 5 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/theassyrianempire883745bc/shalmaneseriii/texts119/index.html#shalmaneser305].
The bronze bands once decorated a pair of massive wooden gates of about 7.92 meters high and 7.5 cm thick. They were arranged in eight parallel bands attached to the gate leaves and were embossed and chased with decoration showing events – military campaigns, receipt of tributes, erection of royal steles – that took place in various regions interested by the intervention of Shalamneser III, not all of them easy – or possible – to identify.

One matter that is still controversial is the bands' exact order of arrangement on the gate's door leaves. At the moment of their discovery in 1878, Hormuzd Rassam indeed found them attached to the remains of the wooden doors (which were lost as soon as they were exposed to the air), but unfortunately no record of their order was taken by the archaeologist (Curtis and Tallis 2015, 60). Since then, hypotheses on the arrangements of the bands have been suggested according to different kinds of approaches on the matter.
W. de G. Brich and T.G. Pinches (1902) suggested that the bands had been arranged according to the chronological order of the ruler's campaigns. L.W. King (1915, 15) dismissed such theory, preferring a focus on an aesthetic/decorative perspective, also based on the way the bands proved to be craved, e.g. with less well finished bands such as BM 124663 (here text no. 85 – R2) had been fixed on the upper part of the doors, above eye level.
A different approach is suggested by E. Unger (1913; 1920), who considered the probable shape of the cedar logs on which the door leaves (and the bronze bands on them) were attached. These must have been gigantic logs that would have tapered towards the top. Therefore, Unger looked for measurements of the distance of the bend were the band starts to go round the post (Knick) to the start of the U-shaped cut-out (Zungenspitz), and arranged the bands according to the increasing progression from bottom to top. He also suggested that the bands were arranged in four groups of four bands each, with a gap in the middle of the doors.
Here, the bronze bands are arranged according to a further hypothesis, the latest, by Curtis and Tallis (2015, but cf. also 2008, 14). This hypothesis has a similar approach to that of Unger, but beside the measurements of the "attaching" parts of the bands to the gates' poles, takes into account also the opposite ends of the bands. More precisely, the point where the engraved bands overlapped with the strips that were fixed to the edges of the doors. Here, the two layers were fixed through nails, whose holes have similar, but of course uniquely different, positions that can be compared and produce a reliable arrangement.

Bibliography

Birch, W. de G., and Pinches, T.G., The Bronze Ornaments oft he Palace Gates of Balawat (Shalmaneser II B.C. 859-825), London, 1902.
King, L.W., Bronze Reliefs from the Gates of Shalmaneser, King of Assyria B.C. 860-825, London, 1915.
Curtis, J.K. and Tallis, N. (eds.), The Balawat Gates of Asshurnasirpal II, British Museum Publications, London, 2008
Curtis, J.K. and Tallis, N., "More Thoughts on the Balawat Gates of Shalmaneser III: the Arrangement of the Bands," Iraq 77 (2015), pp. 59-74.

BalawatAll.jpg

Balawat Gates: Reconstruction of the order of the bronze bands, according to Curtis and Tallis 2015. Elaboration from King 1915.


63-64   65   66-67   68   69   70   71-72   73   74-76   77-78   79   80-81   82   83-84   85   86  

63-64

Balawat_R6_Text63-4.jpg

King 1915, pl. 1-6.

63

An epigraph on the bronze bands of the gates found at Imgur-Enlil (Balawat). This text notes the erection of a statue and making sacrifices by the sea of Nairi. These events are also mentioned three times in the annals; During Shalmaneser's first regnal year (858 BC; text no. 2 i 62-63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/] and no. 28 lines 11-13 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004633/]); third year (856 BC; text no. 2 ii 59-60 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/] and no. 17 line 55 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004622/]); fifteenth year (844 BC; text no. 6 iii 39-40 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004611/]).

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/] of Shalmaneser III 63.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1908 Delitzsch, BA 6/1 pp. 4-83 (edition)
1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 1-6. (photo, translation)
1967-68 Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37 (edition)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 140 A.0.102.63, p. 140. (edition)

64

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see text no. 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the capture of the city Sugunia in Shalmaneser's accession year (859 BC), concerning which see texts no. 2 i 24 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/] and no. 28: 14 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004633/]). The capture of other cities of Aramu, the Urarṭian, is recorded in the epigraphs edited as texts no. 71 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004676/] and 80 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004685/]. The general defeat of Urarṭu is noted in text no. 65 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004670/].

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004669/] of Shalmaneser III 64.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 1-6. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 140 A.0.102.64, p. 140. (edition)


65

Balawat_R8_Text65.jpg

King 1915 pl. 7-12.

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the battle against Urartu.

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004670/] of Shalmaneser III 65.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 7-12. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 141 A.0.102.65, p. 141. (edition)


66-67

Balawat_R3_Text66-7.jpg

King 1915, pl. 13-8.

66

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), one of two similar epigraphs, (the other is Text 84 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004689/]), recording receipt of tribute from Tyre and Sidon. Two occasions of receiving tribute from these cities are recorded in the annals; in the eighteenth year (841 BC) - see Text 8 lines 24'-25" [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004613/] and Text 12 lines 29-30 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004617/], and in the twenty-first year (838 BC) - see Text 14 lines 103-104 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004619/] and Text 16 line 161' [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004621/].

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004671/] of Shalmaneser III 66.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 13-18. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 141 A.0.102.66, p. 141. (edition)

67

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the battle against Ḫazazu in the first year (858 BC), also recorded in text no. 2 ii 11 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/].

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004672/] of Shalmaneser III 67.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 13-18. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 141 A.0.102.67, p. 141. (edition)


68

Balawat_R4_Text68.jpg

King 1915, pl. 19-24.

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/], records the battle against Dabigu in the second year (857 BC), also recorded in Text 2 ii 17-18 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/], Text 6 i 52 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004611/], Text 10 i 34-36 and [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004615/] Text 14 lines 34-35 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004619/]

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004673/] of Shalmaneser III 68.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 19-24. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 142 A.0.102.68, p. 142. (edition)


69

Balawat_L3_Text69.jpg

King 1915, pl. 25-30.

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records receipt of tribute (most probably) from Unqu. This event is also recorded in Text 1 line 93 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004606/] and Text 60 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004665/]

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004674/] of Shalmaneser III 69.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 25-30. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 142 A.0.102.69, p. 142. (edition)


70

Balawat_L4_Text70.jpg

King 1915, pl. 31-6.

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records receipt of tribute from Sangara of Carchemish.

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004675/] of Shalmaneser III 70.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 3-16. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 142 A.0.102.70, p. 142. (edition)


71-72

Balawat_L7_Text71-2.jpg

King 1915, pl. 37-42.

71

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]) records the capture of an unknown Urartian city.

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004676/] of Shalmaneser III 71.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 37-42. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 142 A.0.102.71, p. 143. (edition)

72

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records receipt of tribute from Gi1zānu. This event is mentioned in the annals for the accession year (859 BC) (Text 6 i 41 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004674/] and Text 28 lines 16-18 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004674/]) and in an epigraph on the Black Obelisk (Text 87 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/theassyrianempire883745bc/shalmaneseriii/texts8799/index.html#shalmaneser387]).

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004677/] of Shalmaneser III 72.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 37-42. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 A.0.102.72, p. 143. (edition)


73

Balawat_R2_Text73.jpg

King 1915, pl. 43-7.

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]) records the capture of a city belonging to Anḫitti in Šubrû. The city is here called Ubume while in Text 28 line 44 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004633/] it is called Ibume. The event is also mentioned in the annals for the fifth year (854 BC). see Text 6 ii 17-18 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004633/], Text 10 ii 11-12 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004615/], and Text 14 lines 53-54 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004619/].

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004678/] of Shalmaneser III 73.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 43-7. (photo, translation)
1907 Streck, ZA 20 pp. 456-60 (study)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 A.0.102.73, pp. 143-4. (edition)


74-76

Balawat_L5_Text74-6.jpg

King 1915, pl. 48-53.

74

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the capture of the city Pargâ. This event occured in the sixth year (853 BC). see Text 2 ii 88 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/].

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004679/] of Shalmaneser III 74.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 48-53. (photo, translation)
1969 Astour, Orientalia NS 38 pp. 412-14 (study)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 A.0.102.74, p. 144. (edition)

75

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the capture of the city Adâ. Perhaps this is the same place as the city Adennu (see Text 2 ii 88 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004607/]), which was captured in the sixth year (853 BC).

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004680/] of Shalmaneser III 75.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 48-53. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 A.0.102.75, p. 144. (edition)

76

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the renowned battle of Qarqar in Shalmaneser's sixth regnal year (853 BC).

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004681/] of Shalmaneser III 76.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 48-53. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 pp. 144-145, A.0.102.76 (edition)


77-78

Balawat_L6_Text77-8.jpg

King 1915, pl. 54-9.

77

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]). The mentioned city and royal name are unknown.

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004682/] of Shalmaneser III 77.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 54-9. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3, p. 145 A.0.102.77 (edition)

78

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), describes the making of sacrifices and erecting of a royal statue at "the mouth of the river." The river is presumably the Tigris since Shalmaneser commemorated the reaching of its source in four different inscriptions and reliefs found there (see Texts 21 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004626/], 22 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004627/], 23 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004628/], 24 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004629/]). The texts and reliefs were created in the fifteenth year (844 BC); for the sources see the introduction to Text 23 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/theassyrianempire883745bc/shalmaneseriii/texts2039/index.html].

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004683/] of Shalmaneser III 78.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 54-9. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3, p. 145 A.0.102.78 (edition)


79

Balawat_R5_Text79.jpg

King 1915 pl. 60-65.

An epigraph on a bronze band from Imgur-Enlil (see Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]), records the receipt of tribute from Adinu of the Bīt-Dakkuri, an event recorded also for the ninth year (850 BC) in no. 8 line 28'.

[Yehonatan Hershkovitz]

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004684/] of Shalmaneser III 79.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 60-65. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3, pp. 145-146 A.0.102.79 (edition)


80-81

Balawat_L8_Text80-1.jpg

King 1915 pl. 66-71.

Epigraph on a bronze band from the gates of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat, see text no. Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]). The text concerns the capture of the city Arnê of Aramu the Urartean. Such event took place in the ruler's thenth regnal year (849 BC) and is recordered also in texts nos. 6 ii 58-60, 8: 31′-2′, 10 ii 48-50, and 14: 86. See also epigraph text no. 64, also referring to Aramu and Urartu.

80

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004685/] of Shalmaneser III 80.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 66-71. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3, p. 146 A.0.102.80 (edition)

81

Epigraph on a bronze band from the Gates of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat, see text no. Text 63 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004668/]). The text records the capture of a fragmentary and otherwise unknown city. (

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004686/] of Shalmaneser III 81.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 66-71. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3, p. 146 A.0.102.81 (edition)


82

Balawat_R7_Text82.jpg

King 1915 pl. 72-77.

Epigraph from the Balawat Gates of Shalmaneser (see text no. 63). It concerns the caputure of the city Aštammaku and other cities under the control of Hamath, during the eleventh campaign of this ruler (848 BC; see also, texts nos. 6 ii 1-2; 8: 36′-7′;and 10 ii 55-7).

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004687/] of Shalmaneser III 82.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1915 King, Bronze reliefs, pl. 72-77. (photo, translation)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3, pp. 146-147 A.0.102.82 (edition)


83-84

Balawat_L2_Text83-4.jpg

Unger 1913 pl. 1, N.

83

Epigraph on a bronze band of the Gates of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat; see text no. 63). The text and the depicted scene celebrate the erection of a royal stele in a mountainous landscape.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004688/] of Shalmaneser III 83.

Source: WAM 54.23358

Bibliography

1913 Unger, Zum Bronzetor von Balawat, pl. 1, N. (photo, edition)
1974 Canby, Walters Art Gallery no. 18B (photo)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 148 A.0.102.83, p. 147. (edition)

84

Epigraph on a bronze band from the gates of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat; see text no. 63). The text records, like the similar no. 66, the recepit of the tribute from Tyre and Sidon.
Part of the band is now in the Walters Gallery, Baltimore.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004689/] of Shalmaneser III 84.

Source: WAM 54.2335A

Bibliography

1913 Unger, Zum Bronzetor von Balawat, pl. 1, N. (photo, edition)
1974 Canby, Walters Art Gallery no. 18A (photo)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 148 A.0.102.84, p. 147. (edition)


85

Balawat_R1_Text85.jpg

Unger 1913 pl. 2, O.

Epigraph on a bronze band from the Gates of Balwat (Imgur-Enlil; see text no. 63). Epigraph and related scene concern the battle against the Chaldean city Baqānu, during the military campaign of the ninth year (850 BC).

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004690/] of Shalmaneser III 85.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1913 Unger, Zum Bronzetor von Balawat, pl. 2, O. (photo, edition)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 148 A.0.102.85 (edition)


86

Balawat_L1_Text86.jpg

Unger 1913 pl. 2, P.

Epigraph on a bronze band from the Balawat Gates (see text no. 63), which records the defeat of the land of Hamath.
The battle could be one during any of the many camapigns against the Damascus coalition, led by Hamath. However, Grayson suggests that one of the earlier campaigns (853, 849, 848, 845) seems more probable.

Access the composite text [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/Q004691/] of Shalmaneser III 86.

Source: BM - (Michel, WO 4 pp. 34-37)

Bibliography

1913 Unger, Zum Bronzetor von Balawat, pl. 2, P. (photo, edition)
1996 Grayson, RIMA 3 p. 148 A.0.102.86 (edition)

Nathan Morello & Yehonatan Hershkovitz

Nathan Morello & Yehonatan Hershkovitz, 'Inscriptions, texts nos. 63-86: Balawat Gates' epigraphs', The Royal Inscriptions of Assyria online (RIAo) Project, The RIAo Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2017 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/theassyrianempire883745bc/shalmaneseriii/texts6386/]

 
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