Alphabetic List of the Rulers of Babylonia

The list below presents the principal rulers of Babylonia from the twelfth to the first centuries BC in alphabetic order. Like the Rulers of Babylonia (1157-64 BC): Chronological Order page [], the dates used here follow those of J.A. Brinkman (in A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1977 [revised edition, completed by E. Reiner], pp. 338-341).

Adad-apla-iddina [] (1068-1047 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Alexander III (the Great) (330-323 BC; Macedonian Period)
Alexander IV (316-307 BC; Macedonian Period)
Amēl-Marduk [] (562–560 BC; Neo-Babylonian Dynasty)
Alexander I Balas (150-145 BC; Seleucid Period)
Alexander II Zabinas (128-123 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus I Soter [] (281-261 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus II Theos (261-246 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus III (the Great) (223-187 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus V Eupator (164-162 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus VI Epiphanes (145-142 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus VII Sidetes (139-129 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus VIII Grypus (125-96 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus (115-95 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus X Eusebes (95-83 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus (92 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus XII Dionysus (87-84 BC; Seleucid Period)
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus (69-64 BC; Seleucid Period)
Artaxerxes I (464-424/3 BC; Persian Period)
Artaxerxes II (404-359 BC; Persian Period)
Artaxerxes III (358-338 BC; Persian Period)
Artaxerxes IV (337-336 BC; Persian Period)
Aššur-nādin-šumi [] (699-694 BC; Ḫanigalbat Dynasty)
Baba-aḫa-iddina [] (812? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Bardiya (Smerdis; 522 BC; Persian Period)
Bēl-ibni [] (702-700 BC; E Dynasty)
Cambyses II (529-522 BC; Persian Period)
Cyrus II [] (559-530 BC; Persian Period)
Darius I (521-486 BC; Persian Period)
Darius II (423-405 BC; Persian Period)
Darius III (335-330 BC)
Demetrius I Soter (162-150 BC; Seleucid Period)
Demetrius II Nicator (145-139 and 129 BC; Seleucid Period)
Demetrius III Eucaerus (95-88 BC; Seleucid Period)
Itti-Marduk-balāṭu [] (1139-1132 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Ea-mukīn-zēri [] (1008 BC; Second Dynasty of the Sealand)
Enlil-nādin-apli [] (1103-1100 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Erība-Marduk [] (?-? BC; E Dynasty)
Esarhaddon [] (680-669 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Eulmaš-šākin-šumi [] (1004-988 BC; Bazi Dynasty)
Kandalānu [] (647-627 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Kaššû-nādin-aḫḫē [] (1007-1005 BC; Second Dynasty of the Sealand)
Lâbâši-Marduk [] (556 BC; Neo-Babylonian Dynasty)
Mār-bīti-aḫḫē-iddina [] (942-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Mār-bīti-apla-uṣur [] (984-979 BC; Elamite Dynasty)
Marduk-aḫḫē-erība [] (1046 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Marduk-apla-iddina II [] (721-710 BC and 703 BC; Sealand Dynasty)
Marduk-apla-uṣur [] (?-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Marduk-balāssu-iqbi [] (?-813? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Marduk-bēl-[zēri] [] (?-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Marduk-kabit-aḫḫēšu [] (1157-1140 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Marduk-nādin-aḫḫē [] (1099-1082 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Marduk-šāpik-zēri [] (1081-1069 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Marduk-zākir-šumi I [] (?-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Marduk-zākir-šumi II [] (703 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Marduk-zēr-[...] [] (1045-1034 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Mušēzib-Marduk [] (692-689 BC; E Dynasty)
Nabonidus [] (555-539 BC; Neo-Babylonian Dynasty)
Nabopolassar [] (625–605 BC; Neo-Babylonian Dynasty)
Nabû-apla-iddina [] (?- ? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Nabû-mukīn-apli [] (978-943 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Nabû-mukīn-zēri [] (731-729 BC; Šapî Dynasty)
Nabû-nādin-zēri [] (733-732 BC; E Dynasty)
Nabû-nāṣir [] (747-734 BC; E Dynasty)
Nabû-šuma-iškun [] (?-748 BC; E Dynasty)
Nabû-šuma-ukīn I [] (?-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Nabû-šuma-ukīn II [] (732 BC; E Dynasty)
Nabû-šumu-libūr [] (1033-1026 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Nebuchadnezzar I [] (1125-1104 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Nebuchadnezzar II [] (604–562 BC; Neo-Babylonian Dynasty)
Nergal-ušēzib [] (693 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Neriglissar [] (560–556 BC; Neo-Babylonian Dynasty)
Ninurta?-apl?-[...] [] (?-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur I [] (987-985 BC; Bazi Dynasty)
Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur II [] (943 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Ninurta-nādin-šumi [] (1131-1126 BC; Second Dynasty of Isin)
Philip Arrhidaeus (323-316 BC; Macedonian Period)
Philip I Philadelphus (92-83 BC; Seleucid Period)
Philip II Philoromaeus (65-64 BC; Seleucid Period)
Sargon II [] (709-705 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Seleucus I Nicator (305-281 BC; Seleucid Period)
Seleucus II Callinicus (246-226 BC; Seleucid Period)
Seleucus III Soter (225-223 BC; Seleucid Period)
Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 BC; Seleucid Period)
Seleucus V Philometor (125 BC; Seleucid Period)
Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator (96-95 BC; Seleucid Period)
Sennacherib [] (704-703 BC and 688-681 BC; Ḫanigalbat Dynasty)
Shalmaneser V [] (726-722 BC; Baltil Dynasty)
Šamaš-mudammiq [] (?-? BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Šamaš-šuma-ukīn [] (667-648 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Širikti-Šuqamuna [] (985 BC; Bazi Dynasty)
Simbar-Šipak [] (1025-1008 BC; Second Dynasty of the Sealand)
Sîn-šarra-iškun [] (626 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Sîn-šumu-līšir [] (626 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Sogdianus (424/3 BC; Persian Period)
Tiglath-pileser III [] (728-727 BC; Uncertain Dynasties)
Xerxes I (485-465 BC; Persian Period)
Xerxes II (424/3 BC; Persian Period)

Further reading

The following books offer basic introductions into the history of ancient Mesopotamia:

Kuhrt, A., The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330 BC (Routledge History of the Ancient World), London/New York: Routledge, 1995.

Oppenheim, A.L., Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977 (revised edition; completed by E. Reiner).

Radner, K., and E. Robson (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Roaf, M., Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, New York: Facts on File, 1990.

Van De Mieroop, M., A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC (Blackwell History of the Ancient World), Oxford: Blackwell, 2007 (second edition).

Jamie Novotny

Jamie Novotny, 'Alphabetic List of the Rulers of Babylonia', The Royal Inscriptions of Babylonia online (RIBo) Project, The RIBo Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2016 []

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