Babylonian King List A (BM 033332; Rm 3, 005)

A large clay tablet (BM 033332; Rm 3, 005) preserves the best known copy of a list of rulers from the Old Babylonian kings of Babylon (1894-1595 BC) to the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon7/index.html] (625-539 BC); this document is generally referred to as "Babylonian King List A" in scholarly literature. Despite the facts that the compilation does not take into account the possibility that two or more dynasties might be contemporary or overlap, that the figures for the regnal years of some rulers are incorrect, and that the sequence of a few Kassite-period kings is out of order, Babylonian King List A is one of the most important chronological sources for Babylon in the second and first millennia BC. The list, generally speaking, appears to be a near complete list of rulers of the First Dynasty of Babylon (1894-1595 BC), the First Dynasty of the Sealand, the Kassite Dynasty (-1155 BC), the Second Dynasty of Isin [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon2/index.html] (1157-1026 BC), the Second Dynasty of the Sealand [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon3/index.html] (1025-1005 BC), the Bazi Dynasty [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon4/index.html] (1004-985 BC), the Elamite Dynasty [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon5/index.html] (984-979 BC), and the period of the Uncertain Dynasties [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon6/index.html] (978-626 BC).

The obverse and reverse of the tablet each have two columns of text. Most of the dynasties are separated from one another by horizontal ruling lines and dynastic summaries, which contain the total number of years and kings, as well as the common name of the dynasty. The exact date of compilation is uncertain since the end of the text is broken away. However, we do know that Babylonian King List A was prepared after the short reign of Sîn-šumu-līšir (ca. 627/626 BC), a eunuch who very briefly seized the thrones of both Assyria and Babylonia, sometime during the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/babylon7/index.html] (625-539 BC).

King List A, Obverse
  Lacuna    
i 1')  [x (years)]  [Ammī-ṣaduqa]  
i 2')  [x (years)]  [Samsu-ditāna]  
i 3')  [x (years)]  Eleven king(s), [...] Dyn[asty]  
i 4)  [N]+1 (years)  Iluma  
i 5')  N (years)  Itti-ili-(nibi)  
i 6')  26 (years)  Damiq-ilī(šu)  
i 7')  15 (years)  Iš(ki)ba(l)  
i 8')  24 (years)  Šušši, (his) brother  
i 9')  55 (years)  Gulki(šar)  
i 10')  50 (years)  Pešgal(daramaš)  
i 11')  28 (years)  Ayadara(galama)  
i 12')  26 (years)  Ekurdu(anna)  
i 13')  7 (years)  Melamma(kurkurra)  
i 14')  9 (years)  Ea-ga(mil)  
i 15')  368 (years)  Eleven kings, Sealand Dynasty  
i 16')  26 (years)  Gandaš  
i 17')  22 (years)  Agum the first, his son  
i 18')  22 (years)  K[a]š[t]iliaš (I)  
i 19')  8 (years)  ...ši, his son  
i 20')  [N] (years)  Abi-Rattaš  
i 21')  [N] (years)  Urzigurumaš  
i 22')  [N] (years)  [...] ...  
  Lacuna      
ii 1')  25 (years)  [Kurigalzu (II)]  
ii 2')  26 (years)  [Nazi-Maruttaš]  
ii 3')  18 (years)  K[adašman-Turgu]  
ii 4')  N (years)  Kadaš[man-Enlil (II)]  
ii 5')  6 (years)  Kudu[r-Enlil], his [son]  
ii 6')  13 (years)  Šagarakti-(Šuriaš), his [so]n  
ii 7')  8 (years)  Kaštil(iašu) (IV)  
ii 8')  1 year, 6 months  Enlil-nādin-šumi  
ii 9')  1 year, 6 months  Kadašman-Ḫarbe (II)  
ii 10')  6 (years)  Adad-šuma-idd[ina]  
ii 11')  30 (years)  Adad-šuma-uṣur  
ii 12')  15 (years)  Meli-Šipak  
ii 13')  13 (years)  Marduk-apla-iddina (I), his son  
ii 14')  1 year  Zababa-šu[ma-iddina]  
ii 15')  3 (years)  Enlil-nādin-[aḫi]  
ii 16')  576 (years), 9 months  Thirty-six ki[ng(s), ... Dynasty]  
ii 17')  17 (years)  Mar[duk]-k[abit-aḫḫēšu]  
ii 18')  8 (years)  I[tti-Marduk-balāṭu]  
  Lacuna    
iii 1)  22 (years)  [Adad-apla-iddina]  
iii 2)  1 year, 6 months  Marduk-aḫḫ[ē-erība]  
iii 3)  12 (years)  Marduk-zēr-[...]  
iii 4)  8 (years)  Nabû-šumu-[libūr]  
iii 5)  132 (years), 6 months  Eleven kings, Isin Dynasty  
iii 6)  18 (years)  Simbar-Ši(pak)  
iii 7)  5 months  Ea-mukīn-(zēri)  
iii 8)  3 (years)  Kaššû-nādin-aḫḫē  
iii 9)  21 (years), 5 months  Three king(s), Sealand Dynasty  
iii 10)  17 (years)  Eulmaš-šākin-šumi  
iii 11)  3 (years)  Ninurta-kudurrī-(uṣur) (I)  
iii 12)  3 months  Širiktu-Šuqamu(na)  
iii 13)  20 (years), 3 months  Three king(s), Bas[a] Dynasty  
iii 14)  6 (years)  Mār-b[īti-apla-uṣur]  
iii 15)  36 (years)  [Nabû-mukīn-apli]  
iii 16)  8 months, 12 [days]  [Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur (I)]  
iii 17)  N (years)  [Marduk-bīti-aḫḫē-iddina]  
  Lacuna    
iv 1)  [N] (years)  (E)rība-[Marduk]  
iv 2)  [N] (years)  Nabû-šuma-iškun [(...)]  
iv 3)  [N] (years)  Nabû-nā[ṣir]  
iv 4)  2 (years)  [Na]bû-nādin-zēri, his son  
iv 5)  1 month, 13 day(s)  Nabû-šuma-ukīn (II), his son  
iv 6)    Twenty-two (kings), E (= Babylon) Dynasty  
iv 7)  3 (years)  (Nabû)-mukīn-zēri, Dynasty of Šapî (Šapīya)   
iv 8)  2 (years)  Pūlu (= Tiglath-pileser III)  
iv 9)  5 (years)  Ulūlāyu (= Shalmaneser V), Dynasty of Baltil (= Aššur)   
iv 10)  12 (years)  Marduk-apla-iddina (II), Dynasty of the Sealand  
iv 11)  5 (years)  Sargon (II)  
iv 12)  2 (years)   Sennacherib, Ḫabigal (= Ḫanigalbat) Dynasty  
iv 13)   1 month  Marduk-zākir-šumi (II), son of Arad  
iv 14)   9 months  Marduk-apla-iddina (II), a soldier of Ḫabi (Ḫanigalbat)
iv 15)   3 (years)   Bēl-ibni, E (Babylon) Dynasty  
iv 16)   6 (years)   Aššur-nādin-šumi, Ḫabigal (= Ḫanigalbat) Dynasty  
iv 17)   1 (year)   Nergal-ušēzib  
iv 18)   4? (years)   Mušēzib-Marduk, E (Babylon) Dynasty  
iv 19)   8? (years)   Sennacherib  
iv 20)    [N] (years)   Esarha(ddon)  
iv 21)  [N] (years)  Šamaš-šuma-(ukīn)  
iv 22)  [N] (years)  Kandal(ānu)  
iv 23)  [N] (years)  Sîn-šumu-līšir  
King List A, Reverse

Selected Bibliography

Gadd, C.J., Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum 36, London: British Museum Publications, 1921, pls. 24–25.

Grayson, A.K., 'Königslisten und Chroniken. B. Akkadisch,' in: D.O. Edzard (ed.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie 6/1–2, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 1980, pp. 90–96 §3.3.

Jamie Novotny

Jamie Novotny, 'Babylonian King List A (BM 033332; Rm 3, 005)', The Royal Inscriptions of Babylonia online (RIBo) Project, The RIBo Project, 2016 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/ribo/kinglists/kinglista/]

 
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