Names

  • Tiglath-pileser III 49

Numbers

  • Q003462
  • Tiglath-pileser III 49

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Details

  • Neo-Assyrian
  • Written ca. 744-727
  • Nimrud (Kalhu)
  • Royal Inscription
  • Tiglath-pileser III

Tiglath-pileser III 49 [via RINAP/RINAP1]

Obverse
oLacuna

Lacuna

o 1'1'

[... BAD₅.BAD₅-šú SÌG-ma ana] la ma--e [nap-ḫar KARAŠ-šú e-kim-šú]1

(1') [I ut]terly [defeated him and took his entire camp away from him. He became frightened of the terrifying radiance of my weapons], mounted [a mare in order to save his life, escaped during the night] <to> Mount Sizir, a [rugged] mountain, [and ascended] (it).

o 2'2'

[na-mur-rat GIŠ.TUKUL.MEŠ-ia ip-làḫ-ma a-na šu-zu-ub ZI.MEŠ-šú ina MUNUS.ANŠE.KUR.RA] U₅-ma <ana> KUR.si-zi-ir KUR-i [mar-ṣu mu-ši-tíš iḫ-liq-ma e-li]2

o 3'3'

[msa-ar-du-ri KUR.ú-ar-ra-ṭa-a-a i-na URU.ṭu-ru--pa-a URU-šú] e-sir-šú-ma di-ik-ta-šú ma-ʾa-[at-tu ina IGI .GAL.MEŠ-šú a-duk]

(3') I confined [Sarduri of the land Urarṭu to the city Ṭurušpâ, his city], and [inflicted] a gre[at] defeat upon him [before his city gates. I fashioned my royal image and erected] (it) in front of the city Ṭuru[špâ].

o 4'4'

[ṣa-lam LUGAL-ti-ia --ma] ina tar-ṣi URU.ṭu-ru-[-pa-a ul-ziz]

o 5'5'

[70 KASKAL.GÍD qaq-qa-ru ina KUR.ú-ra-ar-ṭi ra-ap-ši ul-tu] e-liš a-di šap-liš e-tel-liš DU.[DU ma-ḫi-ra ul i-ši]

(5') [For a distance of seventy leagues], I proudly march[ed through the extensive land of Urarṭu, from] one end to the other (lit. “from above to below”), (and) [I had no opponent] (therein).



o 6'6'

[KUR.ul-lu-ba KUR.ḫab-ḫu ša ku-tal KUR.na-al a-na gi-mir-ti-šú-nu ak-šud] a-na mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI ú-ter-ra ṣa-lam LUGAL-ti-ia [i-na KUR.i-li-im-me-ru ul-ziz]

(6') [I conquered the lands Ulluba (and) Ḫabḫu, which (are located) behind Mount Nal, in their entirety] (and) annexed (them) to Assyria. [I set up] my royal image [on (the face of) Mount Ilimmeru. I built a city in the land Ulluba (and) I named it Aššur-iqīša. I brought] the people of (foreign) lands con[quered by me therein (and) placed a eunuch of mine as provincial governor over them. ...] I conquered the cities at the foot of the mountain ridge [...].

o 7'7'

[ina -reb KUR.ul-lu-ba URU - URU.-šur-BA-šá MU-šú ab-bi] UN.MEŠ KUR.KUR ki-[šit-ti ŠU.II-ia ina lìb-bi ú-še-rib]

o 8'8'

[.šu-ut SAG-ia .EN.NAM ina UGU-šú-nu áš-kun ...] URU.MEŠ-ni ša GÌR.II kar-ri KUR-i ak-šud [...]3



o 9'9'

[... URU.ma]-an-ṭu-un URU.sa-ar-[du-ri-a-na ...]4

(9') I conquered [the cities ..., M]anṭun, Sar[durianu, ...], Mount [...]luppi (and) I add[ed] (them) to the pro[vince of the city Aššur]-iqīša.

o 10'10'

[...] x [...]-lu-up-pi KUR-i ak-šud ina UGU NAM [URU.-šur]-BA-šá ú-rad-[di]5



o 11'11'

[... KUR].na-al ú-dan-[nin]-ma e-pu- URU.[x]-ti--šur MU-šú ab-bi UN.MEŠ KUR.KUR ki-šit-[ti] ŠU.II-ia ina lìb-bi ú-še-rib6

(11') I built and for[ti]fied [a city ... Mount] Nal (and) I named it [...]ti-Aššur. I brought the people of (foreign) lands conquered [by] me therein. I conquered (an area) [from the lands ..., S]ardurianu, Lusia, Tapsia, (and) Suba, as far as the land Bitzua, strong fortresses of the land Urarṭu, [together with cities in] their environs. I annexed (those lands and cities) to Assyria (and) added (them) to the province of the treasurer.

o 12'12'

[TA ... KUR.sa]-ar-du-ri-a-na KUR.lu-si-a KUR.tap-si-a KUR.su-ba a-di KUR.É-zu-a URU.bi-ra-a-ti KAL.MEŠ ša KUR.ú-ra-ar-ṭi

o 13'13'

[EN URU.MEŠ-ni ša] li-me-ti-šú-nu ak-šud a-na mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI ú-ter-ra ina UGU NAM .AGRIG ú-rad-di



o 14'14'

[...]-ši-a KUR.mar-ḫa-ti-an-šá URU.e-nu URU.sa-as-su URU.lu-up-sa URU.lu-qi-a URU.ši-mir-ra URU.ú-šur-nu URU.ú-su-ru

(14') I conquered [the land/city ...]šia, the land Marḫatianša, the cities Enu, Sassu, Lupsa, Luqia, Šimirra, Ušurnu, Usuru (Uzurra), (and) (15´) [Ubula], as far as Mount Birdanša, the cities Alinzirānu, Tašliana, (and) Tirḫim, as far as Mount Sinia. I added (those lands and cities) to the province of the chief cupbearer.

o 15'15'

[URU.ú-bu-la] a-di KUR.bir-da-an-šá KUR-i URU.a-li-in-zi-ra-a-nu URU.taš-li-a-na URU.tir-ḫi-im a-di KUR.si-ni-a KUR-i ak-šud

o 16'16'

[ina] UGU NAM .GAL.BI.LUL ú-rad-di



o 17'17'

[KUR.x x] TA URU.qu-qu-sa-an-šú URU.ba-ar-zu-un-na a-di <<URU>> URU.ḫar-bi-si-[in-na URU.ab]-bi-sa-[a]7

(17') [(As for) the land ...], from the cities Ququsanšu (and) Barzunna to the cities Ḫarbisi[nna, Ab]bissâ, (and) [Ta]sa, as far as the land Uluruš, which is above the bank of the Tigris River, the lands Lusia the land of (the metal) lead Amad[īnu], ... [...] (and) the cities Qilissa, Ezzēda, (and) Diuyapli of the district of the land Ateia, [which is] above the bank of [the Tigris River, I added (them) to the province of the land Naʾiri].

o 18'18'

[URU.ta]-sa a-di KUR.ú-lu-ru- UGU pi-a-ti ša ÍD.IDIGNA KUR.lu-si-a KUR A.BÁR KUR.a-ma-di-[i-nu] x x [...]8

o 19'19'

[... URU].qi-li-is-sa URU.ez-ze-e-da URU.di-ú-ia-ap-li ša KUR.a-te-ia na-ge-e [ša ina] UGU pi-a-te ša [ÍD.IDIGNA ina UGU NAM KUR.na-ʾi-i-ri ú-rad-di]9



o 20'20'

[URU].a-ra-a-nu URU.ú-al-li-a URU.ta-su URU.ú-ra ša KUR.ba-zi na-ge-[e ...]

(20') I conquered the cities Arānu, Uallia, Tasu, Ura of the district of the land Bāzu, [...], the lands Uilla, Urbakka, Ulina, (and) Arasilla, the city Alqi[..., ...], eigh[teen] districts, from Mount Eribi to the Euphrates River (and) the border of the land [Kummuḫu, ...] the land Enzi in its entirety, as far as the district of the land Ṣuppa. [I annexed (those lands and cities) to Assyria (and) added (them) to the province of the turtānu].

o 21'21'

KUR.ú-il-la KUR.ur-ba-ak-ka KUR.ú-li-na KUR.a-ra-si-il-la URU.al-qi-[...]

o 22'22'

18? na-ge-e TA KUR.e-ri-bi KUR-e a-di UGU ÍD.A.ŠÌTA mi-ṣir KUR.[ku-um-mu-ḫi ...]10

o 23'23'

KUR.en-zi a-na gi-mir-ti-šú a-di KUR.ṣu-up-pa na-ge-e ak-šud [a-na mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI ú-ter-ra ina UGU NAM .tur-ta-ni ú-rad-di]11



o 24'24'

KUR.É-a-gu-si aḫ-pi 30 GUN .GI 2 LIM GUN .BABBAR NÍG.GA [a-na KUR -šur.KI ú-ra-a KUR.É-a-gu-si]

(24') I ravaged the land Bīt-Agūsi (Arpad) (and) [I brought to Assyria] 30 talents of gold, 2,000 talents of silver, (and) property. I annexed [the land Bīt-Agūsi t]o Assyria (and) [placed a eunuch of mine as provincial governor over them].

o 25'25'

[a]-na mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI ú-ter-ra [.šu-ut SAG-ia .EN.NAM UGU-šú-nu áš-kun]12



o 26'26'

[KUR.un]-qi a-na paṭ gim-ri-šá ak-šud 20 GUN [.GI ... NÍG.GA ... a-na KUR -šur.KI ú-ra-a]13

(26') I conquered [the land Un]qi to its full extent (and) [I brought to Assyria] twenty talents [of gold, ..., property, ... I annexed the land Un]qi to Assyria (and) [placed a eunuch of mine as provincial governor over them].

o 27'27'

[KUR.un]-qi a-na mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI [ú-ter-ra .šu-ut SAG-ia .EN.NAM UGU-šú-nu áš-kun]



Reverse
r 1r 1

[URU.ḫa]-ta-rik-ka a-di KUR.sa-[ú-e KUR-i URU.ka-áš-pu-ú-na ša a-aḫ tam-tim e*-li-ti URU.ṣi-mir-ra URU.ar-qa-a]14

(r 1) I annexed [the city Ḫa]tarikka, as far as [Mount] Sa[ue, the city Kašpūna, which is on the shore of the Upper (text: “Lower”) Sea, (and) the cities Ṣimirra (and) Arqâ to] Assyria (and) [I placed two eunuchs of mine as provincial governors over them].

r 22

[a-na] mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI ú-ter-ra [2 .šu-ut SAG-ia .EN.NAM.MEŠ UGU-šú-nu áš-kun]



r 33

[KUR.É]-mḫa-za--i-li rap-šú a-na si-ḫir-<ti>-šú TA KUR.[lab-na-na a-di lìb-bi URU.ga-al-ʾa-a?-di URU.a-bi-il-šiṭ-ṭi]15

(r 3) [I annexed] to Assyria the extensive [land of Bīt]-Ḫazā-il (Damascus) in its entirety, from Mount [Lebanon as far as the cities Gilead (and) Abil-šiṭṭi, which are on the bor]der of the land Bīt-Ḫumrî (Israel), (and) [I placed a eunuch of mine as provincial governor over them].

r 44

[ša pat]-ti KUR.É-mḫu-um-ri-a a-na mi-ṣir KUR -šur.KI [ú-ter-ra .šu-ut SAG-ia .EN.NAM UGU-šú-nu áš-kun]



r 55

[mḫi]-ri-mu KUR.ṣur-ra-a-a ša it-ti mra-ḫi-a-ni *-ku-na [pi-i-šú ...]16

(r 5) [(As for) Hi]ram of the land Tyre, who conspired with Raḫiānu (Rezin) (against me), [...] I captured (and) plun[dered the city] Maḫalab, his fortified city, together with (other) large cities (of his).

r 66

[URU].ma-ḫa-la-ab URU dan-nu-ti-šú a-di URU.MEŠ-ni GAL.MEŠ ak-šud šal-la-[su-nu áš-lu-la ...]

(r 6b) [...] he came [be]fore me and kissed my feet. [I received] twenty talents of [gold, ...], multi-colored [garments], linen garments, eunuchs, male (and) female singers, ... [...], Egypt[ian horses, ...].

r 77

[a-di] maḫ-ri-ia DU-ka-ma ú-na-áš-ši-qa GÌR.II.MEŠ-ia 20 GUN [.GI ...]

r 88

[lu-bul-ti] bir-me TÚG.GADA .šu-ut SAG.MEŠ .NAR.MEŠ MUNUS.NAR.MEŠ x [... ANŠE.KUR.RA.MEŠ? ša? KUR].mu-uṣ-[ri ... am-ḫur]17



r 99

[KUR.É-ḫu-um-ri]-a a-na gi-mir-[ti-šú ak-šud ... a-di mar]-ši-ti-šú-nu a-[na KUR -šur.KI ú-ra-a]

(r 9) [I conquered the land Bīt-Ḫumr]î (Israel) in [its] entire[ty (and) I brought] t[o Assyria ..., together with] their [belon]gings.

r 1010

[... ma-ú-si-ʾi a]-na LUGAL-ú-ti ina UGU-šú-nu [áš-kun]18

(r 10) [... (and) I placed Hoshea as] king over them. [They brought ... to the city] Sarrabānu, before me.

r 1111

[... ana URU].sar-ra-ba-ni a-di maḫ-ri-ia [ú-bi-lu-ni]19



r 1212

[...] 1 ME GUN .BABBAR as-su-ḫa-am-ma a-[na KUR -šur.KI ú-ra-a]

(r 12) I removed [... (and) ... and] 100 talents of silver and [brought] (it) t[o Assyria].



r 1313

[mḫa-a-nu-ú-nu URU.ḫa-az-za-ta-a-a la-pa-an GIŠ.TUKUL.MEŠ-ia KAL.MEŠ ip-làḫ-ma a-na KUR.mu-uṣ-ri] in-na-bi-it URU.ḫa-az-zu-tu [URU LUGAL-ti-šú ak-šud]20

(r 13) [(As for) Ḫanūnu of the city Gaza, he became frightened by my powerful weapons and] escaped [to Egypt. I conquered] the city Gaza, [his royal city. ...] I fashioned (a statue bearing) [image(s) of the great gods, my lords, and my royal image out of gold, erected] (it) in the palace of the city Ga[za, (rev. 15) (and) I reckoned (it) among the gods of their land; I established their sattukku offerings].

r 1414

[... ṣa-lam DINGIR.MEŠ GAL.MEŠ EN.MEŠ-ia ù ṣa-lam LUGAL-ti-ia ša .GI] - ina -reb É.GAL ša URU.ḫa-az-[zi-ti ul-ziz]

r 1515

[a-na DINGIR.MEŠ KUR-šú-nu am-nu-ma sat-tuk-ki-šú-nu ú-kin ù šu-ú GIM] MUŠEN ul-tu KUR.mu-uṣ-ri [ip-par-šam-ma]

(r 15b) [As for him (Ḫanūnu), he flew] (back) from Egypt [like] a bird [and ... I returned him to his position. I considered] his [...] ... as an Assyrian emporium.

r 1616

[... a-na KI-šu ú-ter-šu-ma ...]-x-šú a-na É ka-a-ri ša KUR -šur.KI [am-nu]21



r 1717

[šá fsa-am-si šar-rat KUR.a-ri-bi ina KUR.sa-qu-ur-ri KUR-e ...] x ina GIŠ.TUKUL ú-šam-qit-ma gim-ri KARAŠ-[šá ...]22

(r 17) [As for Samsi, queen of the Arabs, at Mount Saqurri], I cut down with the sword (lit. “weapon”) [...] ... and [I ... her] entire camp. [I took away (from her) ... all types of aromatics], without number, (and) [her] gods.

r 1818

[... ŠIM.ḪI.A ]-ma a-na la ma-ni DINGIR.MEŠ-[ni-šá e-kim]

r 1919

[ù ši-i a-na šu-zu-ub ZI.MEŠ-šá a-na ma-ad-ba-ri a]-šar ṣu-ma-me GIM MUNUS.<ANŠE>.EDIN.NA taš-ku-na [pa-ni-šá]

(r 19) [Moreover, she, in order to save her life, set] out like a female onager [to the desert, a] place (where one is always) thirsty. [I set the rest of her possessions (and) her tents, her people’s safeguard wit]hin her camp, on fire.

r 2020

[si-ta-at NÍG.GA-šá kul-ta-ri-šá ḫu-ra-da-at UN.MEŠ-šá i-na] MURUB₄ KARAŠ-šá ina IZI [áš-ru-up]

r 2121

[fsa-am-si la-pa-an GIŠ.TUKUL.MEŠ-ia KAL.MEŠ taš-ḫu-ut-ma ANŠE.A.AB.BA.MEŠ MUNUS.ANŠE.a]-na-qa-ti a-di ANŠE.ba-ak-[ka-ri-ši-na]

(r 21) [Samsi became startled by my mighty weapons and she brought camels, she]-camels, with [their] you[ng, to Assyria, before me]. I placed [a representative] (of mine) over her and [...] 10,000 soldiers [...].

r 2222

[ana KUR -šur a-di maḫ-ri-ia taš-šá-a .qe-e-pu] ina muḫ-ḫi-šá áš-kun-ma 10 LIM .ERIM.MEŠ [...]



r 2323

[... ša] a-na LUGAL.MEŠ-ni a-li-kut pa-ni-ia la -pi-lu-ma [la -pu-ra ši-pir-šú]23

(r 23) [(As for) ..., ... who] had not submitted to the kings, my predecessors, and [who had not sent his message (to any of them), ...], heard about [the conquest of the land Ḫat]ti (Syria-Palestine). The terrifying radiance of (the god) Aššur, my lord, [overwhelmed him, and he became distressed. He sent his envoys] to Kalḫu, before me, [to do obeisa]nce.

r 2424

[... ki-šit-te KUR.ḫat]-ti --e-ma na-mur-rat -šur EN-ia [is-ḫup-šú-ma]

r 2525

[ir-šá-a na-kut- .MAḪ.MEŠ-šú ša e-peš .ARAD]-ú-te a-na URU.kal-ḫa a-di maḫ-ri-ia [-pu-ra]



r 2626

[.šu-ut SAG-ia .GAL SAG a-na URU.ṣur-ri áš-pur ša m-e-te-en-na URU.ṣur-ra]-a-a 50 GUN .GI 2 LIM GUN .BABBAR ta-[mar-ta-šú am-ḫur]24

(r 26) [I sent a eunuch of mine, the chief eunuch, to the city Tyre. I received from Metenna of the city Tyr]e 50 talents of gold (and) 2,000 talents of silver [as his] au[dience gift].



r 2727

[mú-as-sur-me KUR.ta-bal-a-a a-na ep-šet KUR -šur.KI ú-maš-šil-ma a-di] maḫ-ri-ia la il-li-ka .šu-ut SAG-ia [.GAL SAG ana KUR.ta-bal áš-pur]25

(r 27) [Uassurme of the land Tabal acted as if he were the equal of Assyria and] he did not come [be]fore me. [I sent] a eunuch of mine, [the chief eunuch, to the land Tabal].

r 2828

[... mḫu-ul-le]-e DUMU la ma-am-ma-na ina GIŠ.GU.[ZA LUGAL-ti-šú ú-še-šib]26

(r 28) [... I placed Ḫull]î, a commoner (lit. “son of a nobody”) on [his royal] thr[one. I received 10 talents of gold, 1,000 talents of silver, 2,000 horses, (and) ...] mules as [his] audien[ce gift].

r 2929

[10 GUN .GI 1 LIM GUN .BABBAR 2 LIM ANŠE.KUR.RA.MEŠ ...] ANŠE.GÌR.NUN.NA.MEŠ ta-mar-[ta-šú am-ḫur]27



r 3030

[... ša ina] LUGAL.MEŠ-ni AD.MEŠ-ia mám-ma la [...]28

(r 30) [..., who] nobody [among] the kings, my ancestors, [... I received ...] as his audience gift.

r 3131

[...] ta-mar-ta-šú [am-ḫur]29

Lacuna

Lacuna

1The damaged text is restored from text no. 41 lines 18´–32´; cf. also text no. 39 lines 21–25. The parallel lines between this text and text no. 41 suggest that the former is probably a tablet copy of the latter, which is written on a stone slab (suggested by J. Novotny).

2[ana] la ma--e “[ut]terly”: The damaged text is restored from text no. 41 line 18´. Cf. Schramm, EAK 2 p. 136, where this passage is read as -ma--e (“camps”); moreover, Schramm restores text no. 41 line 18´ in the same manner.

3URU.MEŠ-ni “cities”: This corresponds to URU.MEŠ-[ni] in text no. 41 line 32´.

4The damaged text is restored from line 12´ and from text no. 39 line 26.

5The restoration follows Schramm, EAK 2 p. 136. Cf. text no. 39 line 29 and text no. 41 line 30´.

6URU.[x]-ti--šur “the city [...]ti-Aššur”: Possibly URU.[li]-ti--šur (“the city [Li]ti-Aššur”), following Tadmor, Tigl. III p. 183 (the note to this line).

7The damaged text is restored from text no. 39 line 34.

8[URU.ta]-sa “[the city Ta]sa”: The restoration is based on text no. 18 line 1 and text no. 39 line 34; see also text no. 10 line 6´. pi-a-tibank”: The authors have tentatively understood this word as piātu (CAD P p. 358). Alternatively, following von Soden (AHw p. 874 sub I), pi-a-ti could be interpreted as “sources.” KUR.a-ma-di-[i-nu] “the land Amad[īnu]”: The restoration is based on text no. 11 line 7´.

9The damaged text is restored from context; see text no. 39 line 36. M. Weippert (ZDPV 89 [1973] p. 38) restores this line, and line 23´, differently; see the critique of K. Kessler (Nordmesopotamien pp. 166–168).

1018?: There is only enough room to restore one narrow sign before 8. Based on the lack of space at the beginning of the line and the maximum possible number of geographic names that could have been mentioned in obv. 21´–22´, this missing sign was probably 10 (a single winkelhaken). The restoration was suggested by J. Novotny.

11The restorations at the end of the line are based on context; see text no. 39 line 36.

12The ends of the lines are tentatively restored from context.

13The restorations at the ends of the lines are based on text no. 50 obv. 1´–rev. 5.

14e*-: See the on-page note to text no. 50 rev. 1.

15See text no. 42 lines 6´–7´.

16[mḫi]-ri-mu “[Hi]ram”: Cf. mḫi-ru-um-mu in text no. 32 line 2. *-: The copy has ša-.

17[ANŠE.KUR.RA.MEŠ? ša? KUR].mu-uṣ-[ri] “Egypt[ian horses]”: The restoration is conjectural.

18The restorations are based on text no. 42 lines 17´–18´.

19[URU].sar-ra-ba-ni “[the city] Sarrabānu”: The reading is based on the collation of P. Hulin; for further information, see Tadmor, Tigl. III pp. 188–189. ú-bi-lu-ni “they brought”: Or possibly restore ub-la “he (Hoshea) brought.”

20For the restoration of damaged text in the Ḫanūnu episode, see text no. 42 lines 8´–15´, text no. 48 lines 14´–18´, and the on-page notes there.

21[...]-x-šú: H. Spieckermann (Juda unter Assur p. 327) suggests reading this passage as [URU.ḫa-az]-zu-tu “[the city Ga]za.” E. Frahm (AfO 44/45 [1997–98] p. 403), slightly modifying Spieckermann’s reading, suggests [URU.ḫa-az]-zu- “[the city Ga]za.” N. Naʾaman (UF 31 [1999] p. 401) translates the parallel passage in text no. 42 line 14´ as “his [port]”; he apparently read [...]-x-šú as [É ka-a]-ri-šú. Frahm (personal communication) suggests URU-šú “his [ci]ty.”

22For the end of the line, see Schramm, EAK 2 p. 136. With regard to lines 17–22, the Samsi episode, see the on-page note to text no. 42 lines 19´–34´.

23The damaged text is restored from text no. 48 lines 20´–21´.

24The damaged text is restored from text no. 47 rev. 16´. Note the discrepancy between the two inscriptions: 50 talents of gold instead of 150 talents of gold in text no. 47.

25The damaged text is restored from text no. 47 rev. 14´–15´.

26ú-še-šib “I placed”: For the restoration, see text no. 47 rev. 15´.

27The restoration at the ends of the lines follows Schramm, EAK 2 p. 136.

28This section probably refers to some distant Arab tribes; see text no. 48 lines 20´–24´a.

29ta-mar-ta-šú “his audience gift”: Or possibly ta-mar-ta-šú-[nu] “th[eir] audience gift.”


Created by Hayim Tadmor, Shigeo Yamada, Jamie Novotny, and the Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period (RINAP) Project, 2011. Lemmatized by Jamie Novotny, 2010, for the NEH-funded RINAP Project at the University of Pennsylvania. The annotated edition is released under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license 3.0. Please cite this page as http://oracc.org/rinap/Q003462/.