Dating and Chronology

Mesopotamian month names are often mentioned in this volume and the charts in this section are intended to aid the reader in understanding the Babylonian Calendar. The Mesopotamian month names and their modern equivalents are:

I  Nisannu  March–April VII  Tašrītu  September–October
II  Ayyāru  April–May VIII  Araḫsamna  October–November
III  Simānu  May–June IX  Kislīmu  November–December
IV  Duʾūzu  June–July X  Ṭebētu, Kinūnu  December–January
V  Abu  July–August XI  Šabāṭu  January–February
VI  Ulūlu  August–September XII  Addaru  February–March
VI₂  Intercalary Ulūlu   XII₂  Intercalary Addaru

Unless it is stated otherwise, the dates given in this volume (excluding those in bibliographical citations) are all BC. Each ancient Mesopotamian year has been given a single Julian year equivalent even though the ancient year actually encompassed parts of two Julian years, with the ancient year beginning around the time of the vernal equinox. Thus, for example, the fourth regnal year of Tiglath-pileser (the eponymy of Bēl-Ḫarrān-bēlu-uṣur) is indicated to be 741, although it actually began around the middle of March in 741 and ended in March 740; therefore, events which took place late in the ancient year "741" actually took place early in the Julian year 740.

Hayim Tadmor & Shigeo Yamada

Hayim Tadmor & Shigeo Yamada, 'Dating and Chronology', RINAP 1: Tiglath-pileser III and Shalmaneser V, The RINAP 1 sub-project of the RINAP Project, 2019 []

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