Lion Weights

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1–9

In 1846, A.H. Layard discovered sixteen bronze weights of various sizes in the shape of crouching lions under one of the colossal winged bulls flanking Entrance b of the throne room (Chamber B) of the North-West Palace at Kalḫu (Nimrud). Thirteen are inscribed with Akkadian inscriptions and nine of these bear inscriptions of a Shalmaneser. Since the weights were discovered with weights of Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, and Sennacherib, the Shalmaneser to whom these lions belong must be the fifth Assyrian king of that name.


1 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003622/]

A weight in the shape of a lion discovered at Kalḫu is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed five minas, a weight authorized by the king ("mina of the king"). The lion also bears a short Aramaic text that states that the object's weight was based on the standard of the "mina of the land," i.e., the Assyrian weight system of the heavy mina (see Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer p. 264).

Access Shalmaneser V 1 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003622/]

Source:

BM 091221 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450185/] (1848-11-04, 0067)

Commentary

This bronze lion weight, with a handle on its back, is the largest of the nine Shalmaneser V lions and weighs 5042.805g. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. Lines 1–2 of the Aramaic inscription are incised on the right flank of the lion, while line 3 is written on the right side of the base. Five vertical strokes, indicating the weight of five (heavy) minas, are incised on the lower left flank. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 36) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 2 (copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 215–216, 220 and pl. facing p. 220 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 3–4 no. 2 (typeset copy [Akkadian], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 p. 5 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 258 Leo 2 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 61 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 2 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682 and 685 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 2 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1975 Segert, Altaramäische Grammatik p. 496 no. 22 (transliteration [Aramaic text])
1978 Degen, NESE 3 pp. 11–14 and pl. II no. 3 (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 b (photo, translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix pp. 130–131 no. 2 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 p. XXIV figs. 3a and 3c and p. XXV fig. 4a (photo)
1995 Curtis and Reade, Art and Empire p. 193 no. 202 (photo, translation, study)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński pp. 36–37 no. 2 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 292 no. 2 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)

2 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003623/]

A lion-shaped weight discovered in the North-West Palace at Kalḫu is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed three (heavy) minas. The lion also bears a short Aramaic text.

Access Shalmaneser V 2 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003623/]

Source:

BM 091226 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450186/] (1848-11-04, 0068)

Commentary

This bronze lion currently weighs 2864.629g; its handle is now missing so its full original weight is not known. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. Lines 1–2 of the Aramaic inscription are incised on the right flank of the lion, while line 3 is written on the right side of the base. Three vertical strokes, indicating the weight of three (heavy) minas, are incised on the left flank. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 37) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 3 (copy [Aramaic text], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 216 and 220–221 and pl. facing p. 220 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 4–5 no. 3 (typeset copy [Akkadian], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1890 Halévy, Revue des études juives 21 p. 226 (study)
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 p. 5 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 pp. 258–259 Leo 3 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 62 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 3 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682 and 684 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 3 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1978 Degen, NESE 3 pp. 11–14 (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 c (photo, translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix p. 131 no. 3 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 p. XXIV fig. 3a and p. XXV fig. 4b (photo)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński p. 37 no. 3 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 292 no. 3 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)
2008 Millard, New Light on Nimrud p. 270 and fig. 32c (photo, study)

3 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003624/]

In 1846, A.H. Layard found this weight, which is in the shape of a crouching lion, at Kalḫu. The object is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed two (heavy) minas. A short Aramaic text is also written on the lion.

Access Shalmaneser V 3 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003624/]

Source:

BM 091222 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450187/] (1848-11-04, 0069*)

Commentary

This bronze lion weight, with a handle on its back, weighs 1992.099g. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. Lines 1–2 of the Aramaic inscription are incised on the right flank of the lion, while line 3 is written on the right side of the base. Two vertical strokes, indicating the weight of two (heavy) minas, are incised on the left flank. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 38) and the collation notes of J. Novotny. A.H. Layard (Discoveries pl. facing p. 601 no. 4) erroneously has md30-PAP-[...]} in line 1.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 4 (copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 216, 221 and pl. facing p. 220 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 5–6 no. 4 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], edition [Aramaic text])
1890 Halévy, Revue des études juives 21 pp. 225–226 (study)
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 p. 5 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 259 Leo 4 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 63 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 4 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682 and 685 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 130 and 139 no. 4 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 d (photo, translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix p. 131 no. 4 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 p. XXIV fig. 3a and p. XXV fig. 4a (photo)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński pp. 38–39 no. 4 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 293 no. 4 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)

4 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003625/]

A weight in the shape of a lion discovered at Kalḫu is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed two (heavy) minas. The lion also bears a short Aramaic text, which records the weight of the lion as "two minas of the king"; note that this text does not refer to the "mina of the land."

Access Shalmaneser V 4 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003625/]

Source:

BM 091223 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450188/] (1848-11-04, 0069)

Commentary

This object weighs 1931.229g; its handle is now missing so its full original weight is not known. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. The Aramaic inscription is incised on the right flank of the lion. Two vertical strokes, indicating the weight of two (heavy) minas, are incised on the left flank. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 39) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 5 (copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 216, 221 and pl. facing p. 220 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 6–7 no. 5 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1890 Schrader, KB 2 pp. 32–33 (edition [Akkadian text])
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 p. 5 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 259 Leo 5 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 64 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 5 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682–683, 685 and 691 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 5 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], translation [Akkadian text], study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 i (photo, translation [Akkadian text])
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix pp. 131–132 no. 5 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 p. XXV fig. 4c (photo)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński p. 39 no. 5 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales in Économie antique p. 293 no. 5 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)

5 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003626/]

A lion-shaped weight discovered in the North-West Palace at Kalḫu is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed one (heavy) mina. The lion also bears a short Aramaic text.

Access Shalmaneser V 5 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003626/]

Source:

BM 091228 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450189/] (1848-11-04, 0072)

Commentary

This bronze lion weight weighs 954.566g; its handle is now missing so its full original weight is not known. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. Line 1 of the Aramaic inscription is incised on the right flank of the lion, and line 2 is on the right side of the base. One vertical stroke, indicating the weight of one (heavy) mina, is incised on the left flank, just below the last line of the Akkadian inscription. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 40) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 8 (copy [Aramaic text], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 216, 221 and pl. facing p. 220 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 7–8 no. 6 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 p. 5 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 260 Leo 8 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 67 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 8 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 p. 682 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 8 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 no. 383 e (translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix p. 132 no. 8 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 p. XXIV fig. 3a (photo)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński pp. 39–40 no. 6 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 293 no. 6 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)

6 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003627/]

In 1846, A.H. Layard found this weight, which is in the shape of a crouching lion, at Kalḫu. The object is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed two-thirds (heavy) mina. The lion also bears a short Aramaic text, which refers to the standard "of the land," without mentioning the authorization "of the king."

Access Shalmaneser V 6 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003627/]

Source:

BM 091230 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450190/] (1848-11-04, 0073)

Commentary

This object, with its handle, weighs 665.729g. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. The Aramaic inscription is incised on the right side of the base. One vertical stroke crossed by a horizontal stroke near its top, apparently indicating the weight of two-thirds (heavy) mina, is incised on the left flank. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 40) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 9 (copy [Aramaic text], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 p. 221 and pl. facing p. 222 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 p. 8 no. 7 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1890 Halévy, Revue des études juives 21 pp. 226–227 (study)
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 pp. 5–6 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 260 Leo 9 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 68 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 3 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682 and 684 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 9 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1954 Pritchard, ANEP p. 36 no. 119 (photo)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 f (photo, translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix pp. 132 and 134 no. 9 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 cover and frontispiece (photo)
1995 Curtis and Reade, Art and Empire p. 193 no. 203 (photo, translation, study)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński pp. 40–41 no. 7 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 293 no. 7 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)

7 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003628/]

A weight in the shape of a lion discovered at Kalḫu is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to an Assyrian king (name fragmentarily preserved), probably Shalmaneser (V), and that it weighed one (light) mina. The lion also bears a short Aramaic text. The style of the Akkadian text differs from that of the other weights of this king in that it refers to the weight first and then presents a label of its owner, i.e., "the palace of Shalmaneser (V)."

Access Shalmaneser V 7 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003628/]

Source:

BM 091227 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450191/] (AOC 016; 1848-11-04, 0075)

Commentary

The royal name in line 2 of the Akkadian text is badly damaged and the name has been read in various ways by scholars. Johns (ADD 2/1 p. 261 Leo 11), Weissbach (ZDMG 61 [1907] p. 401 no. 69), Lehmann-Haupt (ZDMG 66 [1912] pp. 682, 685 and 687), and Braun-Holzinger (Bronzen p. 111) assigned the weight to Sargon II, while Mitchell (in Gyselen, Prix p. 134 no. 10) and Tadmor (Tigl. III pp. 316–317) assigned it to Tiglath-pileser III. T.C. Mitchell's reading of the name as Tiglath-pileser (III) was followed by Tadmor, with some minor modifications. F.M. Fales (Studies Lipiński pp. 41–42 no. 8) identified it as a text belonging to Shalmaneser V (following Pinches; see de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 9–10 no. 9). An unpublished memo of Tadmor (recording further collation) follows Fales' reading. J. Novotny collated the inscription and the results of his collation confirm the assignment of this weight to Shalmaneser V.

As already noted in previous studies, the style of the Akkadian text differs from that of the other weights by referring to the weight first and then to the name of its owner. Moreover, this lion weight is the only one of the nine weights assigned to Shalmaneser V that uses the light standard.

This bronze lion weight, which never had a handle attached to it, weighs 480.149g. Previous publications have often confused the weight of this object (BM 91227) with that of BM 91229, a bronze lion weight of Sargon II. The two pieces were weighed at the request of G. Frame in the British Museum (personal communication), and BM 91227 is the one weighing 480.149g (and BM 91229 is the one weighing 468.388g), as correctly pointed out by Mitchell (contra Fales).

The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. The Aramaic inscription is incised on the bottom. One vertical stroke, apparently indicating the weight of one (light) mina, is inscribed in the middle of the Akkadian inscription, in line 2 just before the LUGAL sign. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 41) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 10 (copy [Aramaic text], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 217, 219, 221 and pl. facing p. 222 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 9–10 no. 9 (copy, edition [Aramaic text])
1891 Müller, WZKM 5 p. 5 (study)
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 261 Leo 11 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 401 no. 69 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 10 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682, 685 and 687 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 10 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 j (translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix p. 134 no. 10 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1994 Tadmor, Tigl. III pp. 316–317 (transliteration)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński pp. 41–42 no. 8 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 293 no. 8 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)
2000 Frame, BSMS 35 p. 95 (study)

8 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003629/]

A lion-shaped weight discovered in the North-West Palace at Kalḫu is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed one-fourth (heavy) mina. A short Aramaic text is also written on the lion.

Access Shalmaneser V 8 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003629/]

Source:

BM 091232 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450192/] (1848-11-04, 0076)

Commentary

This object, with a handle on its back, weighs 236.678g. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. The Aramaic inscription is incised on the bottom. Four vertical strokes, apparently indicating the weight of one-fourth (heavy) mina, is incised on the left flank. The present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 44) and the collation notes of J. Novotny.

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 13 (copy [Aramaic text], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 216, 222 and pl. facing p. 222 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 p. 11 no. 11 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 261 Leo 13 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 402 no. 72 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 13 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682 and 684 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 13 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study, photo)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 and pl. 72 no. 383 g (photo, translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix p. 134 no. 13 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1991 Kwasman and Parpola, SAA 6 p. XXIV fig. 3a and p. XXV fig. 4a (photo)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński p. 44 no. 11 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 293 no. 11 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)

9 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003630/]

A.H. Layard found this weight, which is in the shape of a crouching lion, at Kalḫu in 1846. The object is inscribed with a short Akkadian text stating that the object belonged to Shalmaneser (V) and weighed one-fifth (heavy) mina. The lion also bears a short Aramaic text.

Access Shalmaneser V 9 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/rinap1/Q003630/]

Source:

BM 091233 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/rinap/sources/P450193/] (1848-11-04, 0078)

Commentary

This bronze lion weight, with a handle on its back, weighs 198.416g. The Akkadian inscription is written on the lion's back. Line 1 of the Aramaic inscription is incised on the right flank of the lion, and line 2 is on the bottom. Five vertical strokes, apparently indicating the weight of one-fifth (heavy) mina, are incised on the left flank. Since the original was not examined, the present edition is based on F.M. Fales' published copy (Studies Lipiński p. 45).

Bibliography

1853 Layard, Discoveries p. 513 and pl. facing p. 513 no. 14 (copy [Aramaic text], study)
1856 Norris, JRAS 16 pp. 216, 222 and pl. facing p. 222 (partial copy [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1889 de Vogüé, CIS 2/1 pp. 11–12 no. 12 (typeset copy [Akkadian text], edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1901 Johns, ADD 2/1 p. 261 Leo 14 (transliteration [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1907 Weissbach, ZDMG 61 p. 402 no. 73 (translation [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1911 Soutzo, MDP 12 pp. 30 and 47 no. 14 (study)
1912 Lehmann-Haupt, ZDMG 66 pp. 682 and 687 n. 2 (study)
1921 Thureau-Dangin, RA 18 p. 139 no. 14 (study)
1922 BM Guide pp. 170–171 (study)
1966 Mallowan, Nimrud 1 p. 109 and n. 9 (study)
1973 Schramm, EAK 2 p. 140 b (study)
1984 Braun-Holzinger, Bronzen p. 111 no. 383 h (translation [Akkadian text], study)
1990 Mitchell in Gyselen, Prix pp. 134–135 no. 14 (photo, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts], study)
1995 Curtis and Reade, Art and Empire p. 193 no. 204 (photo, translation, study)
1995 Fales, Studies Lipiński pp. 44–45 no. 12 (copy, edition [Akkadian, Aramaic texts])
1997 Fales, Économie antique p. 293 no. 12 (translation)
1999 Zaccagnini, Studies Heltzer pp. 259–265 (study)
2003 Powell, COS 2 p. 325 no. 126N (translation)

Hayim Tadmor & Shigeo Yamada

Hayim Tadmor & Shigeo Yamada, 'Lion Weights', RINAP 1: Tiglath-pileser III and Shalmaneser V, The RINAP 1 sub-project of the RINAP Project, 2019 [http://oracc.org/rinap/rinap1/shalmaneservtextintroductions/]

 
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