Names

  • SAA 02 002

Numbers

  • CDLI P336039
  • BM 134596
  • K 15272 + Rm 0120 + Rm 0274 (+) 1879-07-08, 0195 (+) 1932-12-12, 0591
  • AfO 08 17+

View

Details

  • Neo-Assyrian
  • Kuyunjik (Nineveh)
  • Treaty

Bibliography

SAA 02, 002

SAA 02 002. Treaty of Aššur-nerari V with Mati’-ilu, King of Arpad (AfO 08 17+)

Obverse
Column i
o io i beginning (at least 30 lines) broken away

(Beginning destroyed)

o i 1'1'

[x x] pa* [x x x x x x x x x]

(i 1) [... may Mati'-ilu], his sons and daughters, his mag[nates and the people of his land become] altogether like [...], may his land [be reduced] to wasteland, may only an area of the size of a brick (be left) for [him to stand upon], may nothing be left for his sons, [his daughters, his magnates and the peo]ple of his land to stand upon. May Mati'-ilu [together with his sons], daughters, magnates and the people of his land [...] like limestone, and may he, together with the people of his land, be cru[shed] like gypsum.

o i 2'2'

DUMU-MEŠ-šú DUMU.-MEŠ-šú GAL⸣-[MEŠ-šú UN-MEŠ KUR-šú]

o i 3'3'

ammar x⸣+[x x x x x x x]

o i 4'4'

KUR-su ammar ḫar-⸢ba-ti [x x x]

o i 5'5'

kaq-qa-ru ammar SIG₄ ina ú-[zu-zi-šú]

o i 6'6'

a-na ú-zu-zi šá DUMU-MEŠ-šú DUMU.-⸢MEŠ⸣-[šú GAL-MEŠ-šú]

o i 7'7'

UN⸣-MEŠ KUR-šú li-iḫ-liq mma-ti-DINGIR [DUMU-MEŠ-šú]

o i 8'8'

[DUMU].-MEŠ-šú GAL-MEŠ-šú UN-MEŠ KUR-šú GIM pu-⸢li [x x x]

o i 9'9'

šu- a-di UN-MEŠ KUR-šú GIM gaṣ-ṣi lip-⸢par⸣-[ri-ir]



o i 10'10'

UDU.NIM an-ni-ú TAv ŠÀ pit--šú la a-na UDU.SISKUR še-lu-[a]

(i 10) This spring lamb has not been brought out of its fold for sacrifice, nor for a banquet, nor for a purchase, nor for (divination concerning) a sick man, nor to be slaughtered for [...]: it has been brought to conclude the treaty of Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria with Mati'-ilu. If Mati'-ilu [sins] against th[is] sworn treaty, then, just as this spring lamb has been brought from its fold and will not return to its fold and [not behold] its fold again, (in like manner) may, alas, Mati'-ilu, together with his sons, [magnates] and the people of his land [be ousted] from his country, not return to his country, and not [behold] his country again.

o i 11'11'

la a-na qa-ri-ti še-lu-a la a-na -ni-ti še-[lu-a]

o i 12'12'

la a-na mar-ṣi še-lu-a la a-na ṭa-ba-ḫi a-⸢na [x x še-lu-a]

o i 13'13'

a-na a-de-e šá m-šurERIM.GABA MAN KUR—[-šur]

o i 14'14'

TAv mma-ti-DINGIR šá-ka-ni še-[lu-a]

o i 15'15'

šúm-mu mma-ti-DINGIR ina a-de-e ta-mi-ti an-[nu-ti i-ḫa-ṭi]

o i 16'16'

ki-i šá UDU.NIM an-ni-u TAv pit--šú še-lu-[u-ni]

o i 17'17'

a-na pit--šú la GUR-ni pa-ni šá pit--šú [la e-mar-u-ni]

o i 18'18'

a-ḫu-la mma-ti-DINGIR a-di DUMU-MEŠ-šú [GAL-MEŠ-šú]

o i 19'19'

UN-MEŠ KUR-šú TAv ŠÀ KUR-šú li-[iḫ-liq]

o i 20'20'

a-na KUR-šú la GUR-ra pa-ni šá KUR-šú la [em-mar]

o i 21'21'

SAG⸣.DU an-ni-u la SAG.DU ša UDU.NIM [šu-]

(i 21) This head is not the head of a spring lamb, it is the head of Mati'-ilu, it is the head of his sons, his magnates and the people of [his la]nd. If Mati'-ilu [should sin] against this treaty, so may, just as the head of this spring lamb is c[ut] off, and its knuckle placed in its mouth, [...] the head of Mati'-ilu be cut off, and his sons [and magnates] be th[rown] into [...].

o i 22'22'

SAG.DU šá mma-ti-DINGIR [šu-u-]

o i 23'23'

SAG.DU šá DUMU-MEŠ-šú GAL-MEŠ-šú UN-MEŠ KUR⸣-[šú šu-]

o i 24'24'

šúm-mu mKI.MIN ina a-de-e an-nu-⸢ti [i-ḫa-ṭu-ni]

o i 25'25'

ki-i šá SAG.DU šá UDU.NIM an-ni-u qa-[ti-pu-u-ni]

o i 26'26'

kur⸣-sin-nu-šu ina KA-šú šak-na-tu-⸢ni [x x x]

o i 27'27'

SAG.DU ša mKI.MIN lu qa-ti-ip DUMU-[MEŠ-šú GAL-MEŠ-šú]

o i 28'28'

ina É? lu ka-[ar-ru]

o i 29'29'

UZU.ZAG an-ni⸣- la UZU.ZAG šá UDU.[NIM ši-i-ti]

(i 29) This shoulder is not the shoulder of a spring lamb, it is the shoulder of Mati'-ilu, it is the shoulder of his so[ns, his magnates, and the people of his land. If Mati'-ilu] should sin against this [treaty], so may, just as the shou[lder of this spring lamb] is torn out and [placed in ...], the shoulder of Mati'-ilu, of his sons, [his magnates] and the people of his land be torn out and [placed] in [...].

o i 30'30'

UZU.ZAG šá mKI.MIN ši-i-ti UZU.ZAG šá DUMU⸣-[MEŠ-šú GAL-MEŠ-šú]

o i 31'31'

UN-MEŠ KUR-šú ši-i-ti šúm-mu mma-ti-⸢⸣—[DINGIR ina ŠÀ a-de-e]

o i 32'32'

an-nu-ti i-ḫa-ṭu-[ni] ki⸣-i šá UZU.⸢ZAG [ša UDU.NIM an-ni-u]

o i 33'33'

na-as-ḫa-tu-ni ina [x x x x x x x šak-na-tu-ni]

o i 34'34'

UZU⸣.[ZAG ša m]⸢KI⸣.MIN DUMU-⸢MEŠ⸣-[šú GAL-MEŠ-šú] UN-[MEŠ KUR-šú]

o i 35'35'

lu na-as-ḫa-at ina x⸣+[x x x x] lu [šak-na-at]



Column ii
o iio ii broken away

(Break)

Column iii
o iiio iii beginning broken away

o iii 1'1'

[x x x x x x x x x x x] x⸣+[x x x]

o iii 2'2'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x

o iii 3'3'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]-⸢ba⸣-ku

o iii 4'4'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x] an⸣-nu-ti

(iii 4) [......] this [......]



o iii 5'5'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x]-⸢MEŠ⸣-ni ša KUR.ḫat-ti

(iii 5) [......]... of Hatti

o iii 6'6'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x⸣-du-ni

(iii 6) [......]...

o iii 7'7'

[x x x x x x x x x x in]-⸢⸣-piš

(iii 7) [......]

o iii 8'8'

[x x x x x x x x x x] KUR⸣.ú-ra-ar-ṭa-a.a

(iii 8) [......] Urarṭian

o iii 9'9'

[x x x x x x x x x x x] la <ta>-ṣab-ba--ni

(iii 9) [... You] shall seize [...]

o iii 10'10'

[x x x x x x x x x la] tu⸣-še-bal-an-⸢ni-ni

(iii 10) [... and shall] send [......]



break

(Break)

o iii 11'11'

[x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x x⸣+[x x]

o iii 12'12'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x⸣-ḫu-⸢um [x]

o iii 13'13'

[x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x man ša x⸣+[x (x)]

o iii 14'14'

[x x x x x x x x x x] ta*⸣-ḫa-ṭu-ni

(iii 14) [... If] you should sin [against ......]

o iii 15'15'

[x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x ina ŠÀ-šú ta-ḫa-ṭu-[ni]

(iii 15) [... If] you should sin against it [......]

o iii 16'16'

[x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x GAZ-šú

(iii 16) [......] you shall kill him

o iii 17'17'

[x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x ta-lak-ni

(iii 17) [......] you shall come to me

o iii 18'18'

[x x x x x x x x x] an⸣-nu-te

(iii 18) [...] these [......]



o iii 19'19'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x]-⸢ni

(iii 19) [......]. You shall not conceal (or) protect (any) chariot-[figh]ter or cavalryman [...], nor send him to another country. If you should prove disloyal to Aššur-nerari, and if your heart should not be devoted to Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria, [if] you, your sons, and the people of your land [should s]eek [...

o iii 20'20'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x]-⸢zi

o iii 21'21'

[lu] *.EN*⸣—GIŠ.GIGIR lu* šá*pet*-ḫal*-li ina? UGU? [x x x]

o iii 22'22'

šúm-mu tu-pa-za-ru-ni ta-ḫa-ṣi-nu-[u]-ni

o iii 23'23'

šúm⸣-mu a-na KUR 02-te tu-še-bal-ni šúm-⸢mu [mKI].⸢MIN

o iii 24'24'

TAv m-šurERIM.GABA la ke-nu-ni šúm-mu ŠÀ-[ba]-⸢ka

o iii 25'25'

[TAv] m-šurERIM.GABA MAN KUR-šur la šá-ki-nu-⸢ni

o iii 26'26'

[šúm-mu] at⸣-ta DUMU-ka UN-MEŠ KUR-ka [x]-nu*

o iii 27'27'

[tu]-⸢ba*⸣-ʾu-⸢ú*-ni*

o iii 28'28'

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x

rest (about 12 lines) broken away

(Break)

Reverse
Column iv
r iv 1'r iv 1'

ina -bit m-šurERIM.GABA MAN KUR-šur a-na KÚR-šú DU-⸢ku⸣-[ni]

(iv 1) [If the Assyrian army] goes to war at the orders of Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria, and Mati'-ilu, together with his magnates, his forces and his char[iotry] does not go forth (on the campaign) in full loyalty,

r iv 2'2'

mma-ti-DINGIR a-di GAL-MEŠ-šú Á.KAL-MEŠ-šú GIŠ.⸢GIGIR⸣-[MEŠ-šú]

r iv 3'3'

a-na ga-mur-ti ŠÀ-bi-šú la È-ni la DU-⸢ku⸣-[ni]

r iv 4'4'

d30 EN GAL-u a-šib URU.KASKAL a-na mma-ti-DINGIR DUMU⸣—[MEŠ-šú]

(iv 4) May Sin, the great lord who dwells in Harran, clothe Mati'-ilu, [his so]ns, his magnates, and the people of his land in leprosy as in a cloak; may they have to roam the open country, and may there be no mercy for them. May there be no more dung of oxen, asses, sheep, and horses in his land.

r iv 5'5'

GAL-MEŠ-šú UN-MEŠ KUR-šú SAḪAR.ŠUB.BA-a GIM na-ḫa-lap-ti li⸣-[ḫal-lip]

r iv 6'6'

EDIN li-ir-pu-du a.a TUK-šú-nu re-e-mu

r iv 7'7'

ka*-bu*-ut* GUD ANŠE UDU-MEŠ ANŠE.KUR.RA-MEŠ ina KUR-šú a.a ib-ši

r iv 8'8'

dIM .GAL AN-e KI.TIM ina su-un-qi

(iv 8) May Adad, the canal inspector of heaven and earth, put an end to Mati'-ilu, his land, and the people of his land through hunger, want, and famine, may they eat the flesh of their sons and daughters, and may it taste as good to them as the flesh of spring lambs. May they be deprived of Adad's thunder so that rain become forbidden to them. May dust be their food, pitch their ointment, donkey's urine their drink, papyrus their clothing, and may their sleeping place be in the dung heap.

r iv 9'9'

SU. ḫu-šaḫ-ḫi šá mma-ti-DINGIR KUR-su UN-MEŠ KUR-šú

r iv 10'10'

liq-qat-ti-ma UZU DUMU-MEŠ-šú-nu DUMU.-MEŠ-šú-nu le-ku-lu-ma

r iv 11'11'

GIM UZU UDU.NIM .NIM UGU-šú-nu li-ṭib

r iv 12'12'

ik-kil dIM li-za-me-ú-ma

r iv 13'13'

A.AN-MEŠ a-na ik-ki-bi-šú-nu liš-šá-kín

r iv 14'14'

SAḪAR-MEŠ a-na -šú-nu qi-ru a-na ŠÉŠ-šú-nu

r iv 15'15'

KÀŠ ANŠE a-na NAG-šú-nu ni-a-ru ana lu-bu--ti-šú-nu

r iv 16'16'

liš-šá-kín ina tub-ki-ni lu ma-a.a-al-šú-nu

r iv 17'17'

BE-ma mma-ti-DINGIR DUMU-MEŠ-šú GAL-MEŠ-šú šá ina a-de-e

(iv 17) If Mati'-ilu, his sons, or his magnates who (sic!) sin against (this) treaty of Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria, may his farmers not sing the harvest song in the fields, may no vegetation spring forth in the open country and see the sunlight, may women fetching water not draw water from the springs, [may ...] be their food, [...] their drink, [...

r iv 18'18'

šá m-šurERIM.GABA MAN KUR-šur i-ḫa-ṭu-u-ni

r iv 19'19'

.ENGAR-šú ina EDIN a.a il-sa-a a-la-la

r iv 20'20'

ur-qit EDIN lu la È-a dUTU lu la* IGI

r iv 21'21'

*⸣.ḫa-⸢bi*-ti [A]-⸢ME a.a iḫ-ba-a A-MEŠ nag-bi

r iv 22'22'

[x x x x lu ma]-ka-al-šu-nu

r iv 23'23'

[x x x x x lu] maš⸣-ti-su-nu

r iv 24'24'

[x x x x x] li-ir-⸢x⸣+[x x]+⸢x

r iv 25'25'

[x x x x x x]+⸢x x⸣+[x x x]

r iv 26'26'

[x x x x x x]+⸢x⸣+[x x x]+⸢x

break

(Break)

r iv 27'27'

[x x x x x x x x x x] ma⸣-a ina ta*-mit

(iv 27) [...... "Woe, we have sin]ned against the oath [of Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria]."

r iv 28'28'

[šá m-šurERIM.GABA MAN KUR-šur ni]-⸢iḫ⸣-ti-ṭi



r iv 29'29'

[šúm-mu mKI.MIN ina a-de-e an-nu-ti šá m]-šurERIM.GABA MAN KUR-šur

(iv 29) [If Mati'-ilu sins against this treaty of] Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria, and looks [......],

r iv 30'30'

[i-ḫa-ṭu-ni x x x x x] la* i-da-gal-u-ni

r iv 31'31'

[x x x x x x x x x x] u URU.NINA KI.MIN

(iv 31) [......] and Nineveh, ditto,

r iv 32'32'

[x x x x x x x x x x] UN-MEŠ KUR-šú

(iv 32) the people of his land [......] (and) you shall be deported [......];

r iv 33'33'

[x x x x x x x x x] la ta-ga-lu-ni

Column v
r v 1r v 1

šúm-mu mu-a-tin-ni la mu-at-ka šúm-mu ba-[la]-⸢ṭin⸣-ni

(v 1) If our death is not your death, if our life is not your life, if you do not seek (to protect) the life of Aššur-nerari, his sons and his magnates as your own life and the life of your sons and officials, then may Aššur, father of the gods, who grants kingship, turn your land into a battlefield, your people to devastation, your cities into mounds, and your house into ruins.

r v 22

la ba-laṭ-ka-ni ki-i šá TI.LA šá ZI⸣-[MEŠ]-ka

r v 33

DUMU-MEŠ-ka GAL-MEŠ-ka ku-[nu]-ni

r v 44

TI.LA šá m-šurERIM.GABA DUMU-MEŠ-šú GAL-MEŠ-šú la *-⸢ba⸣-ʾu-u-ni

r v 55

-šur AD DINGIR-MEŠ na-din LUGAL-ti KUR-ka ana -šá-ri

r v 66

UN-MEŠ-ka ana GÌR.BAL URU-MEŠ-ka ana DUL-ME É-ka

r v 77

ana ḫar-ba-ti lu-tir



r v 88

šúm-mu mKI.MIN ina a-de-e an-nu-ti šá m-šurERIM.[GABA] MAN KUR-šur

(v 8) If Mati'-ilu sins against this treaty with Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria, may Mati'-ilu become a prostitute, his soldiers women, may they receive [a gift] in the square of their cities like any prostitute, may one country push them to the next; may Mati'-ilu's (sex) life be that of a mule, his wives extremely old; may Ištar, the goddess of men, the lady of women, take away their bow, bring them to shame, and make them bitterly weep: "Woe, we have sinned against the treaty of Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria."

r v 99

iḫ-ti-ṭi mKI.MIN lu .ḫa-rim- v.ERIM-[MEŠ-šú] lu -MEŠ

r v 1010

GIM .ḫa-rim- ina re-bit URU-šú-⸢nu [nid?]-⸢nu lim-ḫu-ru

r v 1111

KUR ana KUR lid-ḫu-šú-nu TI* ša mKI.[MIN lu šá?] ANŠE.GÌR.NUN

r v 1212

áš-šá-tu-šú li-tu-tu [d15 be]-⸢lit NITA-MEŠ GAŠAN -MEŠ

r v 1313

GIŠ.BAN-su-nu li-kim [x]+⸢x bal-tu-šú-nu liš-kun

r v 1414

lim-ru-ur bi-⸢kit*⸣-[su-nu] ma⸣-a a-ḫu-la ma-a ina a-de-e

r v 1515

šá m-šurERIM.GABA MAN [KUR-šur] ni-iḫ-ti-ṭi



r v 1616

šúm-mu mKI⸣.[MIN ina a-de-e an-nu]-⸢ti šá [m-šur]—⸢ERIM⸣.GABA MAN KUR-šur

(v 16) If Ma[ti'-ilu sins against thi]s [treaty] of [Aššur-n]erari, king of Assyria [......

r v 1717

[iḫ-ti-ṭi x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x

r v 1818

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x

r v 1919

[x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x]+⸢x

break

(Break)

r v 20'20'

x a x x [x x x x x x x x x x]

r v 21'21'

ina IGI MAN-MEŠ-ni mi-[x x x x x x x x x]

(v 21) ...] before the kings [......]

r v 22'22'

sar-ti DINGIR-MEŠ x⸣+[x x x x x x x x x x x]

(v 22) a divine punishment [......]

r v 23'23'

a-ḫa- x⸣+[x x x x x x x x x x x x]

(v 23) each other [......]



r v 24'24'

šúm-mu mKI.MIN ina a-de-e [x x x x x x x x]

(v 24) If Mati'-ilu [sins against this] treaty [of Aššur-nerari, king of Assyria], may his door be closed and [......; may] robbers [...] the door of [his] people [......], may he sleep [......];

r v 25'25'

-šú li-pi-ḫi-ma ku-⸢x⸣+[x x x x x x x x x x]

r v 26'26'

ḫab-ba-ti ša UN-MEŠ-[šú x x x x x x]

r v 27'27'

li-ni-la mu-⸢x⸣+[x x x x x x x x x x]

Column vi
r vi 1r vi 1

[BURU₅.MUŠEN lit-ba]-am-ma KUR-su

(vi 1) may [locusts] appear and devour his land, may [...] blind their eyes; may [a city of] one thousand houses decrease to one house, may one thousand tents decrease to one tent, may (just) one man be spared in the city to (proclaim my) glory.

r vi 22

[x x x x]+⸢x⸣-ma IGI.2-šú-nu lu-na-pi-il

r vi 33

[URU šá] 01-lim É-MEŠ a-na 01 É li-tur

r vi 44

[o] 01-lim TÚG.maš-ku-nu a-na 01 TÚG.maš-ki-ni li-tur

r vi 55

ina ŠÀ URU 01 a-na di-li-li li-ni-zib



r vi 66

d-šur MAN AN KI tùm-ma--nu

(vi 6) You are sworn by Aššur, king of heaven and earth!

r vi 77

da-nu-um an-tum KI.MIN dBE dNIN.LÍL KI.MIN

(vi 7) Ditto by Anu and Antu! Ditto by Illil and Mullissu!

r vi 88

d1 ddam-ki-na KI.MIN d30 dNIN.GAL KI.MIN

(vi 8) Ditto by Ea and Damkina! Ditto by Sin and Nikkal!

r vi 99

dUTU dA.A KI.MIN dIM dša-la KI.MIN

(vi 9) Ditto by Šamaš and Nur! Ditto by Adad and Šala!

r vi 1010

dAMAR.UTU dzar-pa-ni-tum KI.MIN dAG dLÁL KI.MIN

(vi 10) Ditto by Marduk and Zarpanitu! Ditto by Nabû and Tašmetu!

r vi 1111

dMAŠ dME KI.MIN dIB dNIN.É.GAL KI.MIN

(vi 11) Ditto by Ninurta and Gula! Ditto by Uraš and Ninegal!

r vi 1212

dza-ba₄-ba₄ dBA.Ú KI.MIN dU.GUR dla-aṣ KI.MIN

(vi 12) Ditto by Zababa and Babu! Ditto by Nergal and Laṣ!

r vi 1313

dDI.KUD dNIN.GÍR.SU KI.MIN

(vi 13) Ditto by Madanu and Ningirsu!

r vi 1414

dḫum-ḫum-mu di-šum KI.MIN

(vi 14) Ditto by Humhummu and Išum!

r vi 1515

dGIŠ.BAR dPA.TÚG KI.MIN d15 NIN URU.ni-na-a KI.MIN

(vi 15) Ditto by Girra and Nusku! Ditto by Ištar, Lady of Nineveh!

r vi 1616

dINNIN NIN URU.arba-ìl KI.MIN

(vi 16) Ditto by Ištar, Lady of Arbela!

r vi 1717

dIM šá URU.kur-ba-ìl KI.MIN

(vi 17) Ditto by Adad of Kurbail!

r vi 1818

dIM šá URU.ḫal-la-ba KI.MIN

(vi 18) Ditto by Hadad of Aleppo!

r vi 1919

dIGI.DU a-lik maḫ-ri KI.MIN

(vi 19) Ditto by Palil, who marches in front!

r vi 2020

d7.BI qar-du-ti KI.MIN

(vi 20) Ditto by the heroic Pleiades!

r vi 2121

dda-gan o* d*mu?⸣-ṣur-u-na KI.MIN

(vi 21) Ditto by Dagan and [M]uṣuruna!

r vi 2222

dmi⸣-[il-qar-tu dia]-⸢su*⸣-mu-na KI.MIN

(vi 22) Ditto by M[elqart and Esh]mun!

r vi 2323

d*-ba⸣-[ba dkar]-ḫu-ḫa KI.MIN

(vi 23) Ditto by Kub[aba and Kar]huha!

r vi 2424

dIM d[x] x d*ra*-ma*-nu*

(vi 24) Ditto by Hadad, [...] and Ramman of [Damascus]!

r vi 2525

ša URU⸣.[di-maš-qa KI.MIN]

r vi 2626

dza-[x x x x x x x x]

(vi 26) [Ditto by] ...[......]!

rest broken away

(Break)


Adapted from Simo Parpola and Kazuko Watanabe, Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths (State Archives of Assyria, 2), 1988. Lemmatised by Mikko Luukko, 2016, as part of the research programme of the Alexander von Humboldt Chair in the Ancient History of the Near and Middle East at LMU Munich (Karen Radner, Humboldt Professorship 2015). The annotated edition is released under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license 3.0. Please cite this page as http://oracc.org/saao/P336039/.